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    Volume 2 Number 2 February 2016

    Comparative Effect of Aqueous and Methanol Extract of Buchholzia Coriacea Seeds on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Rats


    Pages: 22-30
    Authors: Okere O. S ; Ladeji O.
    Abstract
    This study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of aqueous and methanol extract of Buchholzia coriacea seeds on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. Twenty four albino rats of both sexes weighing 162.53±3.55 g were used. For the aqueous extract, 12 animals were divided into 4 groups of 3 rats each. Animals in group 1 (positive control) were administered 0.5 ml of diclofenac sodium (reference anti-inflammatory drug) while those in group 2, 3 and 4 were administered 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Buchholzia coriacea seeds respectively. For the methanol extract, 12 animals were divided into 4 groups of 3 rats each. Animals in group 1 (positive control) were administered 0.5 ml of diclofenac sodium (reference anti-inflammatory drug) while those in group 2, 3 and 4 were administered 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the methanol extract of Buchholzia coriacea seeds respectively. Thirty minutes after treatment of animals in both the aqueous and methanol groups with the drug and extract, 0.2 ml of 2% carrageenan was injected into the left hind paw of each animal under the sub plantar aponeurosis.  Paw volume of rats were measured before and after carrageenan injection at 30 minutes interval over a period of 3 hours (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180) minutes, to determine the anti-inflammatory response of both extracts, using carrageenan-induced paw odema method. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the aqueous extract contains terpenoids, flavonoids and steroids while the methanol extract contains saponins, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids and steroids. Proximate analysis of Buchholzia coriacea seeds revealed that crude fibre has the lowest percentage of (1.10±0.05), ash content (5.20±0.01), crude fat (4.10±0.02) moisture content (9.10±0.13), crude protein (10.20±0.20) and carbohydrate with the highest percentage of (70.10±0.04). In terms of percentage inhibition, paw volume was brought to near normal levels by the methanol extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight which showed better anti-inflammatory activity than 500 mg/kg body weight of the same extract as well as all doses of the aqueous extract and even more than the reference drug. Overall, the anti-inflammatory effect may be traced to single or synergistic activity of phytoconstituents present in the methanol extract.



    Choosing the Appropriate Mordant via Multi-criteria Decision Making Methods in Natural Dyeing with Tea Extract


    Pages: 14-21
    Authors: F. Gungor ; M. Akkaya
    Abstract
    This study examined the usability of natural dye obtained from tea for dyeing woolly Bayburt Ehram, a traditional weaving, and the effects of natural mordants and chemical mordants on dyeing numerically. Bayburt Ehram is woven from 100% wool fibre. In this study Bayburt Ehram woven of 100% wool fibre was dyed with 15 different concentrations of 3 different mordant substances. Light fastness and washing fastness tests of the samples were done and colour differences and colour productivity calculated using CIE L*a*b colour space system were compared. VIKOR method was used for the optimization of dyeing parameters and step-by-step solution was shown. This is one of the multi-criteria decision making methods, and aims to rank and choose the best among many alternatives and enables the decision maker to take a decision using agreeable solutions and acceptable advantage and stability for a multi-criteria problem. It is an alternative and effective method to use for problems. Then ranking was done using GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS (GRA) and TOPSIS method and the results were compared using Spearman rank order correlation test and the most effective method was chosen. The experimental results show that using potassium aluminium sulphate mordant gives the best results in terms of colour difference and colour yield for dyeing the woolly fabric with tea.