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    Volume 3 Number 11 November 2017

    In vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of Fresh Garlic Juice (Allium sativum L.) Cultivated in Sudan


    Pages: 89-93
    Authors: Emad Mohamed Abdallah
    Abstract
    Garlic pulp is a very important spice with many therapeutic properties, well known all over the world.  The Sudanese garlic has strong odour compared to other imported varieties and studies on it are scant.  The in vitro antibacterial investigation using disc-diffusion method revealed that garlic has effective antibacterial activity against most tested bacteria and it was a competitor to the antibiotic (Chloramphenicol). However, its efficacy was much higher against the gram-positive bacteria. The highest susceptible gram-positive bacteria was Staphylococcus epidermidis (27.5±4.5mm), followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (20.5±0.5), Staphylococcus aureus (20.5±0.5mm), Bacillus cereus (18.5±0.5mm) and Streptococcus pneumonia (15.0±1.0mm), respectively. While, the most susceptible gram-negative bacteria was Escherichia coli (14.0±0.0mm) and Shigella flexsneri (14.0±1.0mm), followed by Proteus vulgaris (12.5±0.5mm), and Klebsiella pneumonia (10.0±1.0mm), respectively.  Only Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not show any susceptibility toward garlic juice.  The use of fresh garlic pulp in the daily dietary habits, particularly in developing countries, unhygienic areas and rural cantons, may lead to minimizing the probability of spread of bacterial diseases in these areas. 



    Socio-Psychology of Rapping in Criminological Nexus


    Pages: 82-88
    Authors: Md. Kamruzzaman ; Sumona Sharmin ; Md. Abdul Hakim
    Abstract
    Rapping is a heinous crime increasing day by day, hour by hour, minute by minute and second by second in the world. The purpose of the study is to explore the socio-psychological etiology of rapping. The study population has been selected from the charge sheet of fourteen cases of victims and ten cases of rapist under trial in Tangail district Judge Court in a developing country Bangladesh by name. Semi structured in-depth interviewing method was used to collect data. Findings divulged that most of the victims were known to the rapist lied in the Muslim community. The identified causes were of rapping were gender inequalities, patriarchy, power, dominant behavior over women and low social status of the victims. Psychologically, the men committing this crime were mentally panicked. The government, civil societies and conscious people should take effective measures to raise consensus in this connection.