International Journal of Economics and Financial Research
Online ISSN: 2411-9407
Print ISSN: 2413-8533
Print ISSN: 2413-8533
Volume 2 Number 6 June 2016
The Relationship between Interest Rate and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Model (ECM) Approach
Authors: Lyndon M. Etale ; Peter E. Ayunku
This study examined the relationship between interest rate and economic growth in Nigeria, using secondary time series panel data for the period 1985 – 2014. Data was collected from various issues of the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the National Bureau of Statistics. The study employed Augmented Dicker-Fuller (ADF) unit root tests as well as Johansen co-integration test followed by Error Correlation Model (ECM) approach. The ADF unit root test results indicated that the variables are all stationary at first difference. The variables were integrated of order one (1) which implies that the null hypothesis of non-stationary for all the variables of interest is rejected. The Johansen co-integration test result revealed the existence of two co-integrating relationship between the variables at 5% level of significance. The study proceeded to perform the ECM approach and found that interest rate is inversely related to economic growth, but the relationship is statistically insignificant. The recommended that monetary authorities should adopt appropriate polices that would promote and stimulate economic growth in Nigeria.
Optimal Discretionary Monetary Policy in A Potential Zero Lower Bound Framework
Authors: Séverine Menguy
In a recessionary and deflationary framework, the discretionary monetary policy cannot be optimal when the interest rate is already near zero and cannot decrease anymore. Indeed, when the Zero Lower Bound is binding, a negative demand shock implies a decrease in the current economic activity level and deflationary tensions, which cannot be avoided by monetary policy as the nominal interest rate can no longer decrease. The economic literature has then often recommended to target an inflation rate sufficiently above zero in order to avoid the dangers of this Zero Lower Bound (ZLB) constraint. On the contrary, provided the ZLB is not binding, monetary policy can efficiently contribute to the stabilization of economic activity and inflation in case of demand shocks. The variation in interest rates is then all the more accentuated as interest rate smoothing is a more negligible goal for the central bank. The contribution of our paper is to provide a clear analytical New-Keynesian framework sustaining these results. Besides, our analytical modelling also shows that even if the ZLB is currently not binding, the central bank should take into account the dangers of a potential future binding ZLB. Indeed, the interest rate should be decreased the fastest as a negative demand shock and the possibility to reach the ZLB is anticipated for a nearest future period. Our paper demonstrates the necessity of such a ‘pre-emptive’ active monetary policy even in a discretionary framework, which has the advantage to be time-consistent and to be in conformity with the empirical practices of independent central banks. We don’t have to make the strong hypothesis of a commitment monetary policy intended to affect private agents’ expectations in order to demonstrate the optimality of such a pre-emptive monetary policy.