Business, Management and Economics Research
Online ISSN: 2412-1770
Print ISSN: 2413-855X
Print ISSN: 2413-855X
Volume 2 Number 4 April 2016
Do Representation of Women Directors and Their Demographic Characteristics Affect CSR Disclosure? Evidence from Malaysia
Authors: Intan Maiza Abd. Rahman ; Ku Nor Izah Ku Ismail
This study examines the effects of having women directors on corporate board on companyâ€™s corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure. We also examine if women directorsâ€™ demographic characteristics would influence CSR disclosure. From an initial sample of 300 non-financial companies listed in Bursa Malaysia, 139 companies have women on corporate boards. Using data for the year 2013, we found that tenure negatively influences CSR disclosure. As the number of years of serving the corporate board increases, the women directors were found to have less influence on CSR disclosure. Other predictive variables, however, were found to be insignificant in influencing companiesâ€™ CSR disclosure. Findings from this study add to the literature on the impacts of having women directors on companyâ€™s corporate board and their demographic characteristics on CSR disclosure from the point of view of a developing country. The results may be useful for policy makers to improve the representation of women directors as preliminary analyses provide some evidence that companies with women directors provide a better quality of CSR disclosure.
Employee Potentiality vs. Job Responsibility: Employers’ View
Authors: Mohammad Abul Kashem
Learning and expression of the fact-and-reality cannot take place at instance coincidentally. The variations embodied into both assessing and justification of traits and quality of an incumbent set up parameters based on some skills or factors. This study focused on the key factors having influence in selecting an employee for an organization. Due to varied nature of selection methods and variability, the factors were found disperse behavior in different dimensions. The researcher craved to identify the impact of scattered factors in selection of an employee and made some clusters through similarities and variability by Varimax Rotation Factor Analysis. From several factors, this study found that maximum preference toned with leadership skill under which leadership, oral communication, presentation skill, decision making capacity, capability to work in group, knowledge about corporate world, written communication, analytical ability, innovativeness, fellow feeling, and dedication to work were worth considerable. The study also encompassed other influential factors namely, team spirit, belongingness skills, analytical ability, change management skill, and human skills.
Milk Supply and Demand of Ulaanbaatar City
Authors: Ichinkhorloo Bazarragchaa ; Nyambat Luvsandorj ; Lu Qian
In Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar city (UB) is not only the largest and capital city with continuously growing populations due to its own development. Current domestic liquid milk production has not met with the consumption of UB and other big cities in Mongolia. The objective of this study is to analyze market equilibrium of liquid milk market of UB city, and determine level of milk supply. Market theory, including demand and supply analyses were applied using regression analyses to estimate functional forms and other required statistical â€“ econometrical indicators. Secondary data gathered from National Statistical Office /2004-2014/ and methodology for converting adult equivalence methodology cited from methodological guidance. The main finding is that there is comparatively big deficit of liquid milk in UB, which leads to liquid milk insecurity (794.4 t <237.8 t). The functions and elasticity(s) show clearly that the share of dried milk higher in the market. Therefore, support of domestic liquid milk producers should desirable to increase domestic liquid milk supply. More advanced development of intensified dairy farms and supports of their activities are essential in order to meet the demands. Furthermore, we have created the map of liquid milk supply in UB.