English Literature and Language Review
Online ISSN: 2412-1703
Print ISSN: 2413-8827
Print ISSN: 2413-8827
Volume 3 Number 6 June 2017
?Being Direct or Indirect?? Politeness, Facework and Rapport Construction in Chinese Interpersonal Business Requests
Authors: Wenhui Yang ; Kaiyue Zhen
This article investigates how requests, either in direct or indirect forms, are associated with politeness strategies and facework in Chinese verbal business negotiations. Drawing on authentic data and Watts (2003) social models of politeness and (Kirkpatrick, 1991; Spencer-Oatey Helen. (2000)) rapport management, the authors analyze how business negotiators manage and interpret the notion of “being (in)direct” and its connection with linguistic politeness, facework and rapport construction in business discourse. The results reveal that there is no inherent connection between Chinese politeness and Chinese facework. Interpersonal rapport in business contexts is complex and dynamic owing to different communicative motives and business relations. The Chinese facework can be classified into self face and collective face at both non-professional and professional levels. The realizations of business requests embody business negotiators’ cognition of social and professional roles and sensitivity of interpersonal rapport, together with their evaluation of interactive contexts and linguistic forms, revealing the Chinese interpersonal communication system and discoursal rapport construction in business contexts.
Rethinking Heart of Darkness through Race and Racial Conflict
Authors: Md. Amir Hossain ; Md. Kaisar Ali
This research paper would like to examine Marlow’s frailty as a narrator, his ethnocentricity and color consciousness and inability to comprehend inscrutable Africa that leads the author to support the colonizers against the Africans and how his approach is shared by Conrad as well. Conrad, in the colonial novel, Heart of Darkness has biasness for European colonialism, though the biasness is not so much conspicuous but ostensible, covertly and allusively maintained throughout. This study aims to focus upon Conrad’s treatment of and race and racial conflicts. It also would like to explain the concept of race through applying the critical comments made by different critics and scholars.