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Volume 5 Number 5 May 2019

Health Outcomes and Agricultural Output in Nigeria


Authors: Anowor Oluchukwu F. ; Nwonye Nnenna Georgina ; Okorie George Chisom ; Ojiogu Michael C.
Pages: 106-111
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijefr.55.106.111
Abstract
Attaining sustainable agricultural development in any economy indubitably points towards ensuring improved quality of life and enough food for both present and future generations. The need to understand the links between agricultural output and health outcomes necessitates an inquiry to ascertain the extent the changes in health outcomes can influence agricultural output. This study using the dynamic error correction built an econometric model such that mortality rate and life expectancy are proxies for health outcomes while agricultural output is the dependent variable; HIV/AIDS is the dummy. Results showed that HIV/AIDS has lethal effects on health outcomes and aggregate output. It revealed that health outcomes also have significant impact on agricultural output potentials; and there is a causal relationship between health outcomes and agricultural output in Nigeria. This implies that if the healthcare system in Nigeria can be taken as a policy priority, a tremendous increase in the agricultural sector is unarguably expected. A simultaneous front involving both the public and private sectors in extending the healthcare services is necessary to enable workers and prospective workers access to healthcare delivery; this will invariably boost the agricultural output.



The Determinants of Inflation in West Africa


Authors: Diabaté Nahoussé
Pages: 100-105
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijefr.55.100.105
Abstract
The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of inflation in West Africa, mainly in the WAEMU zone, in order to contribute to improving the conduct of monetary policy. The equation of the exchange of the Quantitative Theory of the Currency and the generalized method of moments (MMG) in dynamic panel is used. Annual data concerning six countries in West Africa and range from 1991 to 2015. The results of the estimation show that in addition to the economic growth rate and the money supply, the devaluation has a significant effect on inflation. As we can see, inflation is not systematically a monetary phenomenon in West Africa. The authorities must therefore seek to determine the optimal threshold for the rate of increase of the money supply.



The Effects of Monetary Policy on Agricultural Output in Eswatini


Authors: Mary S. Mashinini ; Sotja G. Dlamini ; Daniel V. Dlamini
Pages: 94-99
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijefr.55.94.99
Abstract
The agricultural sector in Eswatini is viewed as an engine to foster economic growth, reduce poverty and eradicate inequality. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of monetary policy on the agriculture Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Eswatini using annual data for the period starting from 1980 to 2016. Using the Vector Error Correction model (VEC), the empirical results indicated that in the long run, agriculture GDP, exchange rate, interest rate, inflation, broad money supply, and agriculture credit have a negative effect on agriculture GDP in Eswatini.  In the short run the study indicated that the variation in agriculture GDP is largely significant caused by the lagged agricultural GDP, interest rate, exchange rate as well as inflation. Money supply and agriculture credit contribute 0.46% and 0.55%, respectively to the variation in agricultural GDP. The study recommends that programs aimed at availing affordable credit to farmers should be prioritized to cushion the agriculture sector against adverse monetary policy shocks in the short to medium term, specifically interest rates, to ensure continuous production.