International Journal of Economics and Financial Research
Online ISSN: 2411-9407
Print ISSN: 2413-8533
Print ISSN: 2413-8533
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 6 Number 7 July 2020
Internal Factors Influencing the Profitability of Commercial Banks in Bangladesh
Authors: Md. Zakir Hosen
The profitability of commercial banks is influenced by a number of internal and external factors. This paper attempts to identify the internal factors which significantly influence the profitability of commercial banks in Bangladesh. In this study, profitability is measured by ROA and ROE which may be significantly influenced by the internal factors such as IRS, NIM, CAR, CR, DG, LD, CTI and SIZE of the bank. Data are collected from published annual reports during 2014--2018 of 23 commercial banks. Using simple regression model, it is found that CR has significant effect on the profitability and CAR has significant influence on ROA only. In addition to this, DG has significant effects on PCBs’ profitability (ROE only) where as IRS and CTI have significant influence on profitability (ROA only) of ICBs. Further, none of these variables have significant effects on the profitability of SCBs but CAR and CR are correlated with profitability (ROA only) and the causes may be the nature of services provided by SCBs to its clients. The internal policy makers should manage the influential internal factors of the banks in order to increase their profitability so that they can meet stakeholders’ expectations.
Monetary Policy and Private Sector Credit Interaction in Ghana
Authors: Alice Constance Mensah ; Ebenezer Okyere
Using a series of econometric techniques, the study analysed interaction between monetary policy and private sector credit in Ghana. This study made use of monthly dataset spanning January 1999 to December 2019 of credit to the private sector (PSC) and broad money supply (M2). The results reveal that there exists cointegration, a long run stationary relation between monetary policy and private sector credit. This implies, increases in credit should prompt long-term increases in monetary policy. It is not surprising that growth in the private sector might have a stronger effect on monetary policy. The Error Correction Test is statistically significant and that all the variables demonstrate similar adjustment speeds. This implies that in the short run, both money supply and credit are somewhat equally responsive to their last period’s equilibrium error. There is unidirectional causation from private sector credit to monetary policy. It can be said that, there is an interaction between money supply and private sector credit. Thus, credit to private sector holds great potential in promoting economic growth. It can be recommended to the government to increase the credit flow to the private sector because of its strategic importance in creating and generating growth of the economy.
Predicting Intraday Prices in the Frontier Stock Market of Romania Using Machine Learning Algorithms
Authors: Dan Gabriel ANGHEL
This paper investigates if forecasting models based on Machine Learning (ML) Algorithms are capable to predict intraday prices in the small, frontier stock market of Romania. The results show that this is indeed the case. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of the various models improves as the forecasting horizon increases. Overall, ML forecasting models are superior to the passive buy and hold strategy, as well as to a naïve strategy that always predicts the last known price action will continue. However, we also show that this superior predictive ability cannot be converted into “abnormal”, economically significant profits after considering transaction costs. This implies that intraday stock prices incorporate information within the accepted bounds of weak-form market efficiency, and cannot be “timed” even by sophisticated investors equipped with state of the art ML prediction models.
An Economic Analysis of Efficiency and Equality Combining Epistemological True with Axiological Good Through Microeconomics to Macroeconomics
Authors: Fred Y. Ye
Applying the Arrow-Debreu-Mundell-Fleming model as an economic standard model, with combining axiological framework and epistemological model, it is proposed to analyze economic policies with using a synthetic model, where interest, exchange and tax rates are integrated together. Except normal monetary and fiscal policies mainly via interest and tax rates, there are feasible ways to utilize modified strategies via exchange and tax rates. When ones need to simulate national local market, ones can raise the exchange rate. Otherwise, when ones need to promote international global trade, ones may lower the exchange rate. It is found that tax reduction is good policy when tax rate is higher than normal and that tax increase is good social policy when tax rate is lower than normal, during economic depression. Also it is revealed that tax reduction is good social policy when tax rate is lower than normal, and that tax increase is good policy when tax rate is higher than normal, during economic overheat. While economic system seeks efficiency and social system pursues equality, common interest modifications with elastic exchange and tax rates could be applied for balancing efficiency and equality.
Understanding Agricultural Productivity Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Analysis of the Nigerian Economy
Authors: Miftahu Idris
In recent times, agricultural sector has returned to the forefront of development issues in Nigeria given its contribution to employment creation, sustainable food supply and provision of raw materials to other sectors of the economy. In lieu of that, this study examines the impact of agriculture on the economic growth in Nigeria using annual time series data covering the sample period of 1981 to 2018. To analyse the data collected, Autoregression Distributed Lag (ARDL) model through the bounds testing framework is employed to measure the presence of cointegrating relations between real GDP, agricultural productivity, labour force, and agricultural export. Results show the presence of both short-run and long-run relationship among the variables, and that agriculture has a positive and significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria. These findings inform the Nigerian government on the need to expedite labour force (human capital) and agricultural export (non-oil) development with the view to achieving sustainable growth and development. In addition, developing skills and competencies of labour force through capacity building in the agricultural sector will encourage research and development thereby increase the export size, hence essential for long-term growth.
Arguments in Favour of Economic Liberalization
Authors: Bakirov V. S. ; Kostenko E. ; Kuklin V. M.
The article illustrates the results of the economic development of the first fifteen years of the XXI century under the conditions of unprecedented economic freedom, globalization and the appearance of new informational sectors up to and including the first attempts at revising liberalism. The analysis of statistical data demonstrates an obvious increase in the percentage of well-off people in many countries as well as the increased economic capabilities of small, medium and large businesses, whose assets are distributed among an ever-increasing number of owners. This provides the impetus to review our collective approach to liberalization and globalization, as well as to view its unexpected strong sides that make human progress possible.
Effects of Working Capital Management on Firm’s Profitability: A Study on the Firms Listed Under DSE in Bangladesh
Authors: Md. Shakhaowat Hossin ; Sohana Begum
This paper investigates the relationship between working capital management and financial performance of Pharmaceuticals and Textile firms listed at the Dhaka Securities Exchange in Bangladesh. The data analysis was carried on ten Pharmaceuticals and Textile firms for a period of 2013 to 2017. Secondary Data was analyzed by applying Descriptive Statistics, Regression and Correlation analysis to findthe relationship of current ratio, inventory conversion period and average payment period with Return on Asset. The findings indicate that the Pharmaceuticals and Textile firms’ performance is influenced by the variables relating to working capital. There is a positive relationship between profitability and current ratioand Inventory Turnover period shows a negative relationship with profitability but Average payment period shows insignificant impact on profitability. The study concludes that there exists a relationship between working capital managementand financial performance of Pharmaceuticals and Textile firms in Bangladesh. The study recommends that for the Pharmaceuticals and Textile firms to remain profitable, they should employ working capital management practice that will help in making decisions about investment mix and policy, matching investment to objective, asset allocation for institution and balancing risk against profitability.