International Journal of Economics and Financial Research
Online ISSN: 2411-9407
Print ISSN: 2413-8533
Print ISSN: 2413-8533
Volume 2 Number 8 August 2016
Can the Disparity between GDP and GDP Forecast Cause Economic Instability? The Recent Japanese Case
Authors: Yutaka Kurihara
This paper investigates the link between forecast disparity and macroeconomic instability that results from the data revision of GDP and inflation in Japan. The recent Japanese case, which reflects the unconventional monetary policy conducted since 2013, is also examined. The empirical results show that such disparities do not cause economic instability; however, they have have done so after the unconventional and drastic monetary policy was conducted. On the other hand, exchange rates impacted economic stability for the total period. For the first part of the period under study (from 2000 to 2012), currency appreciation caused instability; however, for the more recent period, depreciation has caused such instability. Recently, macroeconomic instability has been linked with exchange rate movements.
Sustainable Development Goal 4 and the Quality of Education in Zambia
Authors: Syed Ali ; Urooj Afshan Jabeen
The purpose of this paper was to know the sustainable development goal 4 and find out the quality of education in Zambia. The quality of education was measured by the number of primary and secondary schools, enrolment of students, dropout rate, the equity indicators – gender parity index and student-teacher ratio and quality indicators like exam pass rate and infrastructure. The study concluded that the growth rate of schools under private/church/community was higher than the Government run schools during the study period. There prevails inequality between different provinces with regard to the availability of schools. The average annual growth rate in enrolment for grade 1-12 for female students was higher than the male students, whereas, in public universities the percentage of enrolment for male students was higher than female. The dropout rate was higher for female than male students, due to early pregnancy. The gender parity index increased due to the policy of the Government towards girls. To achieve the sustainable development goal for education, the study suggested that the teachers in rural areas should be provided better service conditions, education should be enhanced according to the needs of the economy and student loan scheme should be initiated by the banks and financial institutions.