The Journal of Social Sciences Research
Online ISSN: 2411-9458
Print ISSN: 2413-6670
Print ISSN: 2413-6670
Volume 6 Number 1 January 2020
Agricultural Research and Development Expenditure, Productivity and Adoption as a Panacea to Improved Rural Livelihoods; A Review of Literature
Authors: Saul Ngarava
Myriad of studies have been undertaken to evaluate contribution of agricultural research and development to improved rural livelihoods. Whether be it through influencing farm productivity, rural household income, employment creation and consumer welfare, agriculture research and development has been idealised to have a significant impact on livelihoods. This paper reviews past studies that have been undertaken in relation to agricultural research and development expenditure, factor input productivity and adoption by the rural poor in different agricultural aspects. The study identifies that there are some consistencies in reported findings of research and development expenditure having impact on improving agricultural output. Equally so, findings have also been consistent of agricultural productivity increasing at the instigation of research and development as well as the existence of an array of socio-economic factors having major influences on research and development innovation adoption. Despite the existence of spatial as well as temporal variations however, there do appear loopholes within the literature. Expenditure influences on output have appeared aggregated, with few studies, mainly from global research institutes, trying to subdivide how project specific expenditure has tended to influence the specified projects. Furthermore, studies on productivity measures of research and development despite being aggregated, have concentrated on how output has changed vis-à-vis changes in inputs utilised induced by research and development. A short fall however are studies based on the dynamism of the inputs relative to changes in output that they do instigate. Even the socio-economic variables tending to influence research and development output adoption appear to vary from technology to technology, in some instance having a positive influence and in other instances otherwise. Each project is thus unique and no array of diversification of socio-economic variables can be prescribed even though commonality could be identified.
Stakeholders’ Support for Large Scale Assessment in Schools: A Case of Annual National Assessment (ANA) in South African Schools
Authors: Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani ; Nonhlanhla Doris F. Khumalo ; Mncedisi C. Maphalala ; Samantha Govender
Assessment is a crucial aspect of teaching and learning; it includes various means of assessing what learners could reproduce as product of learning. Annual National Assessment (ANA) is a large scale assessment with the sole aim of measuring learners’ achievement, growth and progress. Since the introduction and implementation of ANA in 2010, the analysis of the results from 2011 to 2014 has shown very little improvement in learner performance. This qualitative study sought to ascertain how stakeholders supported standardised testing to overcome its limitations, and can be used to improve teaching and learning in South African schools. The theoretical framework that underpins this study is the Hard Accountability Model. Themes were generated from the collected data from ten English teachers, ten Mathematics and ten Heads of Departments from ten grade six primary schools in King Cethswayo district, Kwa-Zulu Natal Province of South Africa. Findings revealed that stakeholders did not support adequately ANA to fulfil its purpose in schools. The study also indicated inadequate teacher development programmes to regularly capacitate teachers on how to improve ANA results. The study therefore recommended that the Department of Basic Education should ensure that teacher developmental programmes are conducted while curriculum advisors and School Management Teams should strengthen their supervision and monitoring in schools.
Utilization Entrepreneurship for Job Creation, Poverty Reduction and National Development
Authors: Awwal Muhhammad Shafiu ; Halimah Abdul Manaf ; Sakinah Muslim
Entrepreneurship has become a tool for uplifting nations and improving their socio-economic development for the benefit of all citizens. This has worked for Western capitalist economies and the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In Africa there is less reliance on entrepreneurship as an engine of economic growth and development which has led to unemployment pervasive poverty and underdevelopment. The paper examined how entrepreneurship can help to speed up socio-economic development in Nigeria and reduce reliance on unsuccessful Western backed neo-liberal development strategies. The data of the study were sourced from array of both published and unpublished materials such as textbook, journal papers, newspapers, magazines, conference papers and seminar papers and internet material. The paper argues that Nigeria cannot develop without utilizing entrepreneurship as the cornerstone of its development strategy. Furthermore, the paper sees entrepreneurship as crucial to developing indigenous capacity in technology, manufacturing and export trade. It recommends development and implementation of local solutions to developmental problems, effective implementation of development policies, and credit provision to local entrepreneurs and creation an enabling environment for production and trade, and capacity development of Nigerian youth through technical and vocational training.
Construction of Hoax Circulated in Social Media
Authors: Nini Ibrahim ; Fauzi Rahman
This study aims at explore the construction of hoax circulation discourse that causes anxiety and emotions for individuals and community groups. This study was a qualitative analysis method that produced description data in the form of words, sentences, and ideas about nature, circumstances, symptoms, and motivations that arose from certain objects. Data sources for this research were news circulated online: (1) Artificial eggs from China, (2) A Mysterious lecturer in Yogyakarta, and (3) ‘Jengkol’ (Archidendron pauciflorum) is as an anticancer medicine. The study of hoax discourse construction is important to be conducted so that people do not easily believe in news related to sources and the validity that cannot be accounted for. This research found out that hoax created by: 1) using sensational and provocative titles, 2) using visual elements as an attraction, 3) using unpopular scientific diction, 4) sometimes threatening, 5) quoting invalid/credible sources, 6) not only sourced from blogs, but from official sites, but circulated in the readers’ column, 7) following the latest issues in the community.
The Influence of Organizational Justice and Positive Organizational Behavior: Systematic Review and Call for Future Research
Authors: Syamsul Hadi ; Heru Kurnianto Tjahjono ; Zainal Mustafa El Qadri ; Wisnu Prajogo
This paper aims to focus on research configuration and to create a conceptual framework on the influence of salience oforganizational justice (OJ) dimension and salience of positive organizational behavior (POB) based on 5.530 articles from the Digital library. The method used in this study is a systematic review covering OJ and POB publications from the 2011up to 2019. This is the first paper to jointly analyze the influence of OJ and POB using systematic review method, which may enrich academic discussion. Findings: Distributive and procedural justice has the most weighted of evidence in influencing the salience of positive organizational behavior, followed by interpersonal and informational justice. While the highest sequences of salient outcome include organizational commitment, OCB, job satisfaction, organizational trust, job performance, and pay satisfaction. Interpersonal justice does not affect pay satisfaction, and informational justice only has salient outcome towards OCB, job performance, and pay satisfaction.
Effect of the Reciprocal Style on the Performance Skills of Certain Movements on the Balance Beam
Authors: Dr. Ghada Khasawneh ; Dr. Ismaiel Ghassab Ismaiel ; Lana Yousef Alnaser
This study aimed to identify the effect of the reciprocal style on the performance skills of forward rolling and leap, performed by the faculty of physical education female students on the balance beam. The sample consisted of (58) students distributed over two equal groups. The first experimental group students were taught by the traditional teaching style, whereas the second experimental group students were taught by the reciprocal teaching style, during the second semester of the academic year 2017/2018. The means, standard deviations, and T-test were calculated to determine the differences between the groups. The results showed statistically significant differences at (α≤0.05) level between the post measurements of the two groups in the skill performance level in favor of the experimental group. The researcher recommended the use of reciprocal teaching style in teaching skills as well as use modern teaching methods on the different activities.
Constraints in Livestock Development Programmes, Experiences from the Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) Scheme in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa
Authors: Saul Ngarava ; Abbyssinia Mushunje ; Simbarashe Tatsvarei ; Peter Mukarumbwa ; Ebenezer Megbowon
The study identified constraints faced in a livestock development programme and their determinants. The study utilised a questionnaire, administered purposively on farmer field days in November, 2017, through a cross sectional survey of KyD scheme participants from KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with a purposive sample of 164 respondents from 3 locations. The data was analysed through descriptive statistics, Likert scale and binary logistic regression. The results show that the constraints faced include lack of sense of ownership, information, extension commitment and lack of leadership. Furthermore, lack of sense of ownership was determined by access to veterinary services, experience in rearing cattle, land tenure and the decision maker. Determinants of commitment of extension worker constraint were gender of household-head as well as the decision maker, whilst for lack of information were monthly off-farm income, land tenure, decision maker as well as source of income. Conclusions reached include overreliance on scheme services, and complexities in decision making having bearing on the constraints faced in the KyD scheme. The study recommends incorporating indigenous knowledge systems which have tier effect of increasing access to services, farmer’s participation and decision making, also taking advantage of the relationships with extension services to enhance effective information dissemination.
National Interests and Regional Security in the Lake Chad: Assessing the Multinational Joint Task Force
Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Micheal Abada ; Charles Akale ; Kingsley Chigozie Udegbunam ; Olihe A. Ononogbu
This article assessed security architecture for counter-insurgency against Boko Haram in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB). The paper diagnosed the impact of conflicting national interests of contributing nations on the performance of the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) as a regional security architecture in the LCB. Some scholars and analysts cite corruption, historical contradictions among LCB members, poor funding, and complex nature of the insurgency, as factors responsible for failure of counter-insurgency operations in the LCB. Others contend that resource geopolitics, linguistic differences, and hegemonic politics have impacted negatively on the capacity of the MNJTF to decimate terrorists in the region. This is a qualitative study that draws from the Fund for Peace, International Crisis Group (ICG), Lake Chad Basin Commission, the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED), and research literature dealing with national interest and military alliances, while using content analysis to argue that conflicts in national interests, more than any other factor, have hampered the collaborative efforts of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) and weakened the capacity of the MNJTF to engage in robust counterinsurgency against Boko Haram in the LCB.
The Cultural Tourism and Flamenco
Authors: Lucía García-García ; Guzmán Antonio Muñoz-Fernández ; José Miguel Valverde-Roda ; Antonio Menor-Campos
Flamenco is a living art that excites and awakens the senses of those who witness such a dance, singing and guitar show. It is a way of expressing feelings. Flamenco was considered a world intangible heritage of humanity by UNESCO and is a part of the identity and culture of Andalucía, place where it originated. Flamenco is a symbol of Spanish culture around the world. In addition, it has been discovered that there is a typology of flamenco tourists whose motivation is related to the search of experience and authenticity in the tourist destination. A search of published scientific articles on emotional tourism, motivation and flamenco has been conducted using three databases: Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Flamenco is an art that transmits passion in each of its three components: song, dance and music. Therefore, tourism management of the sites where flamenco is part of its identity must bet on its development and potential as a motivating factor to travel, bringing the emotion to the tourist, which consists not only in perceiving it, but also in experiencing it, living it. We conclude that Flamenco as a living art forms an essential part of Spain’s cultural heritage and becomes an important tourist factor to cover the experiential needs of tourists.
Relationship Between the Physical Activity Level and Some Physical and Coordinative Abilities among Students at Age (12) Years
Authors: Ahmed Bataineh ; Osama Abdel Fattah ; Morsalat Khashoqa
The aim of this study was to identify the physical activity level and some physical and coordinative abilities among studnts in the age group (12) years depending on the gender. Additionally, the relationship between the physical activity level and these abilities was explred. To achieve this, the researchers used the descriptive approach on a sample consisting of (115) students in the model school at Yarmouk University, with (75) male students and (40) female students, who were selected randomly. The researchers used some of the German motor test (DMT) battery items, which included some physical abilities (20 meters), flexion the trunk downwards from the stand position, amended sit-up for 40 seconds, walking and running and some coordinative abilities (back dynamic balance , Jump aside for 15s). For data processing, the researchers used the (SPSS) to calculate the mean, standard deviations, frequency and percentage, test (t) and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences at (α > 0.05) in all physical abilities according to gender variable and for males, and astatistically significant differences at (α <0.05) in all coordinative abilities according to gender variable and for famles. The results of the study also showed a positive correlation between the physical activity level and the physical and coordinative abilities level among the study sample.
Consumer Acceptance of Mobile Marketing: A Study of Three Generation Cohorts in Jakarta
Authors: Rini Setiowati ; Giuliano Octavianos
This research aims to examine the factors influencing mobile marketing acceptance in three generation cohorts in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to confirm the influence of risk acceptance and personal attachment as antecedent factors toward mobile marketing acceptance with the support of marketing-related mobile activities. This study employs Cronbach’s alpha to test reliability and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the validity of the questionnaire. Furthermore, this study used simple and multiple regression analysis and mediating analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine whether there are any significant differences between three generation cohorts towards risk acceptance, personal attachment, and mobile marketing acceptance. The results show that risk acceptance and personal acceptance significantly affect mobile marketing-related activities, and mobile marketing-related activity has a significant influence toward mobile marketing acceptance. However, among all the variables, only mobile activity related to accessing content significantly mediates personal attachment to mobile marketing acceptance.
Risk Assessment and Fraud Prevention in Banking Sector
Authors: Samuel Ngigi Nyakarimi ; Samuel Nduati Kariuki ; Peter Wang’ombe Kariuki
The objective of the study was to assess the effect of risk assessment on fraud prevention in banking industry in Kenya. The study involved all banks in Kenya. Descriptive and correlational research designs were used in this study. Factor analysis was undertaken to reduce the factors and remain with factors that had higher loading which was determined through the use of Eigen values. Correlation analysis was applied to determine the strength and direction of relationship between variables and regression analysis based on structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesis. The descriptive analysis showed that the respondents strongly agreed that the parameters put in place are capable of preventing fraud in banks. The hypothesis testing showed that risk assessment has significant effect on fraud prevention in banking industry in Kenya. From the results of tests, it was concluded that the risk assessment mechanisms put in place to assess the risks have significant effect in fraud prevention and as such they should be enhanced to completely prevent fraud in banking sector.
Communicating Cultural Values in Shaping City Images through the Museum of Batik Pekalongan, Indonesia
Authors: Imam Nuraryo
The purpose of this study are firstly, to find out what is the history of the batik (a traditional textile originating from the island of Java) in Pekalongan City, Indonesia and what cultural values are contained in the batik design of the archipelago exhibited in the batik museum in Pekalongan. Secondly, to find out how the cultural values contained in batik are communicated to the community. Thirdly, how the museum made an efforts in helping preserve batik as a product of cultural heritage to strengthen the city image of Pekalongan City as the World’s City of Batik. The results of this study indicate that the cultural values contained in batik patterns are strongly influenced by the culture of migrants who arrived in the city of Pekalongan. Pekalongan as a coastal city on the north coast of Java is very easily accessed by migrants from various ethnic groups such as Arabic, Chinese, Japanese and even Dutch. They came to Pekalongan with the aim to trade, religion propaganda, even to war. Batik Museum in Pekalongan also plays an active role in socializing the history and values contained in each batik displayed by considering the arrangement of display space and organizing events such as fashion shows or short course to make batik for teenagers.