The Journal of Social Sciences Research
Online ISSN: 2411-9458
Print ISSN: 2413-6670
Print ISSN: 2413-6670
Volume 6 Number 2 February 2020
Entrepreneurial Performance Improvement with Organizational Creativity and Entrepreneurial Orientation
Authors: Arista Natia Afriany ; Muhammad Agung Prabowo ; Alfian Yulianto ; Dekeng Setyo Budiarto
SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) have a significant role in developing countries, especially in Indonesia. In Indonesia, SMEs can absorb a lot of workforces, thereby reducing unemployment. This study aims to examine the effect of organizational creativity, artistic orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, and financial literacy on entrepreneurial performance. The research object is creative MSMEs in Yogyakarta. The respondents of this study were 139 creative SME’s owners or managers. This research uses multiple linear regression analysis to prove the hypothesis. This research is the development of some previous findings by testing the effect of organizational creativity with the entrepreneurial performance that has never been studied before. The results showed there was an influence between organizational creativity, entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial performance. This research has implications for SME owners to improve creativity if they want to achieve optimal entrepreneurial performance.
Training Needs for Teachers of Children with Autism in Jordan, From Their Perspectives (A Descriptive Study)
Authors: Awnieh Ata Sawalha
The present study aimed to identify the training needs of teachers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the identification of their relationship to some variables. The study sample consisted of (42) teachers, of both sexes, of children with autism spectrum disorder chosen deliberately from (5) private centers and institutions that provide educational services for those children in Amman, Jordan. The researcher used an instrument of (48) items distributed over two sub-domains: Theoretical training needs and practical skills training needs, after obtaining good validity and reliability of the scale. The results of the study indicated that the training needs importance to the respondents was of moderate level in each of the domains: Theoretical and practical skills needs. There were no statistically significant differences in teachers’ assessment of their needs that could be attributed to the variables of gender and teaching experience of the teacher. The study recommends a continuous assessment of the needs of teachers of children with autism spectrum disorder, and focuses on the preparation of specialized training programs for teachers to satisfy these needs.
Automation and Mechanics: How it Affects Employee Perceptions and Relationships at Work
Authors: J. C. Visagie ; H. M. Linde ; S. Garson
Automation, and new technologies, have become well-known terms over the last few decades but with this new "fame" a few negative aspects as well. Automation has always carried a particular shadow of fear wherever it went. This fear includes the anxiety of replacement, the fear of unemployment, the fear of conflict between employees and employers and the fear of losing valuable relationships at work if it were to be implemented. In South Africa, seeing as though South Africa is still a developing country, employees have not yet experienced the full impact of automation as in developed countries such as America, China and England. Automation has only been implemented on a small scale in some companies. Nevertheless, these small scale implementations still caused a negative ripple throughout the business sector of the country. Employees perceived automation as being a problem that will only lead to an employee being replaced or losing his or her work. The phenomenological study was done using qualitative research by interviewing low-level employees and their managers/employers. The interviews focused on how employees perceived the various factors of automation. The primary objective of this study was to identify the perceptions that employees had of automation and how they feel automation will affect their world of work. The researcher examined various ways that automation influenced the labour market regarding employees, especially low skilled workers. The results of the study showed that even though automation is still relatively new in South Africa, employees always feared its presence.
Intention to Create Legal Relations and the Reform of Contract law: A Conservative Approach in the Modern Global Era Social Development, Customary Law and Administration of Justice in Nigeria
Authors: James E. Archibong
Intention to create legal relations is one of the essential elements of a valid contract. It is a critical factor in validating a contract alongside offer, acceptance and consideration. Even when an agreement fulfills these three basic elements, failure to prove intent to be legally bound nullifies the contract and justifies the refusal of the justice system to enforce it. It has been argued on one hand that as far as an agreement has met the basic elements of offer, acceptance and consideration necessitating a separate test of intention to create legal relations is inordinate. On the other hand, it has also been submitted that the doctrine should be retained. Through an analytical approach, this paper examines both sides of the contention and resolves in favour of retaining the doctrine. This will enhance commerce; guaranty contracting parties’ uninhibited right and freedom to enter into a contract and ensure certainty and stability in the realm of contract in a manner consistent with the requirements of modern global era.
Do Demographic Subgroups and Education Levels of Financial Planners Create a Difference of Opinion when Developing a Retirement Plan in South Africa?
Authors: Shagaran Rathnasamy ; Jugjith Deodutt
Society’s reliance on financial planners, to provide a holistic overview on retirement, needs to be supported by unbiased fact. Greninger et al. (2000), found consensus between experts among a panel of 188 financial planners and educators. Consensus was found and there was agreement on the guidelines for planning assumptions and meeting family needs. Nine-tenths of the experts agreed that families should have achieved 50-60% of retirement savings goals by age 50 and 90% by age 60%. Although the consensus level was indeed high, there were noted differences between gender and occupation. Overall, there were more males (55%) than females (45%). Financial planners were predominantly male (77%) with educators predominantly female (59%) creating a significant relationship between occupation and gender in the sample. The study also revealed a significant difference in the educational level of the two occupational subgroups. As expected, most planners possessed bachelor degrees whereas most educators possessed postgraduate degrees up to a doctoral level. On the guidelines where there was a high level of agreement, it would be useful to know how the advice was influenced by varying demographic and educational backgrounds. This study is to determine what differences of opinion might exist between educational and demographic subgroups of financial planners.
Business Feasibility of Mocaf Flour Products, Cassava Starch, Purple Sweet Potato and Yellow Yams
Authors: Etty Soesilowati ; Nana Kariada Tri Martuti ; Octavianti Paramita
Feasibility analysis of tuber flour production business aims to determine its profitability. The study used a quantitative approach with a sample of SME UD. Berkah, Semarang. The variables include investment costs, working capital, and profits. Data were analyzed using Cost & Benefit Ratios, Payback Period, Net Present Value, and International Rate of Return. The results show that to produce 4,000 kg/month of tuber into flour requires an investment cost of IDR. 120,800,000. With depreciation of IDR. 671,083,- per year, the income of IDR. 9,150,000 per month can be earned or 23.8% per year. The payback period is estimated to be 1.1 years with an internal rate of return of 84.28%. Hence, it can be concluded that the business of producing mocaf flour, cassava starch, cassava, purple yam flour and yams is feasible. Flour producers should increase the production capacity by building business networks ranging from tuber farmers to the users.
Investigating the Relationship Between Anthropomorphism and Point of View by Analyzing the Visual Structure of Film in “Hunters and Hunted” (2009)
Authors: Vahid Shamshirian ; Reza Afhami ; Ali Sheikh Mehdi
This paper examines the creation of anthropomorphism through a point of view focusing on visual structure in the "Hunters and Hunted"(2009) documentary. One of the criticisms of wildlife films is the anthropomorphism of animal behavior and relationships in ecosystems in these documentaries, as it can lead to distortions of animal behavior in ecosystems. One of the aims of this article is to indicate the part of anthropomorphism that is created through the point of view and through the visual form of the work, so in order to avoid anthropomorphism in films, more attention should be paid to the form of aesthetic. Point-of-view analysis shows that subjective point of view (P.O.V) shots leads to anthropomorphism from the perspective of non-human beings. With this in mind, the different perspectives were explored in "Hunters and Hunted" from the “life” (2009) series. Surveys show that from 475 shots of this documentary, 14 shots are from the first person’s point of view from an animal perspective to advance the narrative. The structure of the P.O.V created in these shots shows that the shot / reverse angle shot pattern was used to create the subjective point of view and the image composition and also editing played a key role in creating the P.O.V shots in this documentary.
Exploring Adequate Retirement Funding in South Africa: A KwaZulu-Natal Financial Planner’s View
Authors: Shagaran Rathnasamy ; Jugjith Deodutt
The development of several social demographic and economic trends have created the interest among financial analysts and the general population in planning for retirement. By the year 2021 the number of South Africans past retirement age will be an estimated 4.4 million which should account for approximately 7.3% of the country’s population (currently 3.8 million or 6.8% of the population) (Statistics South Africa, 2016). The increase in South Africa’s population at large and longer retirement periods have raised questions about financial preparedness for retirement. Economic issues such as corporate downsizing, capped employer retirement contributions, changing of jobs for greater remuneration and increased daily living costs have shifted the responsibility for retirement financial well-being from employers to individuals. Adequate retirement provision does not necessarily only affect the retiree but also the family unit of the retiree as a whole, as the vast majority of households in developing countries such as South Africa rely solely on one breadwinner. A global financial planning survey “was conducted by the FPI in 2015. The survey shows that only 38% of South Africans are confident that they will achieve their financial life goals, with 55% indicating that they do not know where to start with financial planning Financial Planning Institute of South Africa (2015), Gustman et al. (1995), as sited in Greninger et al. (2000) reported that, “there is no consensus in literature regarding the definition of retirement. If we do not understand the meaning of retirement, is it possible to judge whether a population is financially prepared?” This question underlines the importance of gathering informative qualitative data such as goals and risk tolerances and quantitative data, in order to develop a capital needs analysis to establish how clients can successfully meet their retirement goals. This paper aims to explore the role of the Financial Planner in the retirement planning process.
Analyzing Pakistan’s Geoeconomic and Geopolitical Importance to BRI
Authors: Ali Gholizadeh ; Seyed Ashkan Madani ; Saba Saneinia
The "Belt and Road" initiative (BRI) has built a bridge linking China with countries along the belt and road. BRI related issues are no longer an abstract debate, as many projects have been implementing or even have been completed in recent years. Pakistan, as a traditional friendly neighbor of China, has actively participated in the initiative, providing new opportunities for bilateral economic cooperation. With its China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), Pakistan plays a vital pivot. It becomes a lynchpin of BRI as CPEC connects important sea routes to western China, which is surrounded by land. This article, therefore, is an analysis of Pakistan’s role in the Chinese initiative, including geo-economic and geopolitical importance of Pakistan for China, and the importance of Gwadar port for China and projects of CPEC in Pakistan. Unlike current debates which usually conceptualized BRI in a hegemonic, mercantilism, or economic starcrafts context, this study finds the importance of geography and economic security concepts for both Pakistan and China as influential factors along with other factors.
Correlations Between Effective Teachers’ Clusters System and Enhanced Classroom Practices in South Africa
Authors: Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani
In-service professional development of teachers plays prominent roles in determining quality education in any country. Professional development of teachers has become fundamental to education system in developing African countries. This study evaluated the use of clusters system as one of the in-service professional development approaches for teachers in South African high school. Andragogy theory was used as theoretical framework to underpin the study. Questionnaire was administered with 40 teachers; 3 Heads of Departments were engaged in semi-structured individual interviews while 5 teachers were engaged in a focus group interview. Findings revealed that clusters system existed among the various subject-teachers, and these clusters were beneficial to teachers; classroom practices were enhanced, and teachers could be supported by experienced colleagues. However, findings revealed that contents of these meeting were not relevant to the teachers, there was no proper monitoring or follow-up on the teachers’ activities there. The study therefore recommends that clusters system should be well structured to attend to classroom needs of the teachers, while proper follow-up mechanisms should be put in place.
Determinants of Food Security Status amongst Smallholder Farmers Utilizing Different Maize Varieties in OR Tambo District, South Africa
Authors: Ardinesh Kambanje ; Amon Taruvinga ; Abbyssinia Mushunje ; Charles Mutengwa ; Saul Ngarava
Maize is an important staple crop for poverty reduction and global food security in Sub Saharan Africa. Food insecurity can be combated through adoption of productivity improving technologies, which include improved maize varieties. In that endeavour, South Africa has promoted various improved maize varieties which include open pollinated varieties (OPVs), hybrids, and genetically modified (GM) varieties. Despite this, the traditional landrace varieties have also been dominating in the country. However, the household food insecurity problem in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa may signify a mis-match between maize varieties being promoted amongst smallholder farmers’ and their needs. It therefore necessitates a scrutiny of the food security status among users of different maize varieties, and the determinants of such food security. A cross sectional survey was conducted in Port St Johns, Mqanduli and Flagstaff in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Data was purposively collected from a sample of 650 smallholder farmers using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Household Food Insecurity Access Score and ordinal logistic regression model were employed to characterize, examine the household food insecurity status and the determinants, respectively. Fifty-six percent of the respondents were utilizing land race maize varieties, whilst 29% GMs, 10% combining GMs and landrace, 4% improved OPVs and 1% convectional hybrids. The average land area under maize was 1.09 hectares with average yields (t/ha) of 1.9, 0.5, 1.7 and 1.6 for GM, landrace, conventional hybrids and improved OPVs respectively. Fifty-five percent of households utilizing GM varieties and 61% of those combining maize varieties were food secure. The regression model showed that maize variety had significant influence on food security. The study found that GM maize, improved OPV, white maize and combination effects of GM maize was associated with reduction of household food insecurity. From the study, it can be put into perspective that use of white and improved maize varieties reduces household food insecurity. Therefore, to address household food insecurity, the study recommended targeting white maize varieties, especially GM white maize varieties which are highly productive and a positive influence on household food security.
Assessment of Career Ambition of Head of Farm Families for their Children: A Case of Farmers in South Western Nigeria
Authors: Gabriel Adewunmi Eyinade ; Celestine Ohi Akharume
In early 60s and 70s, agriculture is one of the key sectors of the Nigerian’s economy. The decline in agricultural production is attributed to the drudgery nature of traditional farming system mostly practice by farmers in the country and the influence of rural farmers on career choice of their children. The study therefore aims to assess the influence of head of farm families in career choice for their children using a descriptive statistics. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 120 rural farmers from Oyo State in Nigeria. Results show that 50% of the respondents were in their active age, 86.7% were married, 61.7% of the respondents had a household size of 3-6 family members, and 45.8% of the respondents had no formal education. The results of the Chi-square analysis further reveal that variables such as age, marital status, and household size, level of education, secondary occupation and membership of social organisation were statistically significant at 1% signifying that all the socio-economic variables have a significant relationship with the choice of career for the farmer’s children. To unlock farmers’ perspective on career choice ambition choosing for their children, the study suggests that more attention should be paid to improve traditional farming systems by several stakeholders and government, by providing farm equipment such as tractor and other farm implements which can make farming less rigorous, profitable and enjoyable to the rural youths in the rural communities.