Volume 2 Number 3 March 2016

Strengthening the Criminal Justice System: An Analysis of the Police Component

Authors: Jean Bosco Nzitunga
Pages: 69-73
The importance of organizational culture on the organization�s performance has been demonstrated (Hsu, 2009; Naicker, 2008). Although many scholars have concentrated their research on commitment and job satisfaction in both the private and public sectors, leading to positive organizational reforms, a review of the literature in the field of criminal justice system exposed a dearth of empirical research about the determinants of law enforcement and police officers� organi-zational commitment and job satisfaction. This gave rise to the following research question: what is the impact of police organizational culture on law enforcement officers� job satisfaction and organizational commitment in Namibia? A survey was administered to 100 police officers in Windhoek to address this question.

The Role of the Public Sector in the Decline of the European Middle Class: The Spanish Case

Authors: Mar?a Crespo Garrido
Pages: 54-68
In the years following to the financial crisis of 2008, middle class has been particularly affected by the tax burden exerted in all societies. Besides, the pressures of indirect taxes, particularly reverting on people with lower incomes, and taxes that assess the income earnings of citizens. Currently, it is necessary to make reference to the fiscal gap triggered by the difference between what the employee really supports and the cost that his or her salary represents for his payer. This fiscal gap is particularly large in Mediterranean countries, where the difference between the net salaries charged by employees is far from the actual cost (gross pay) for the employer. The experience demonstrates a direct relationship between high fiscal gaps and high unemployment rates. A different issue is how to get a redistributive effect, if this gap decreases. Furthermore, taxation is not unaware to population policies, and a decrease in fertility rates to a medium term causes societies to have a smaller workforce, which harms the redistributive levels.  Therefore, this article intends to analyze whether the States require from a fiscal system to raise tax rates, in order to allow efficient policies in favor of the family.

Ethnological and Legal Study of Jogis

Authors: Vaibhav Jain
Pages: 48-53
This paper deals with a community of Jogis which is fighting for its survival in all phases and in each place (country). They are found in major religions but undeveloped and considered to be of low social status in all subcontinents and are victim of society. This community did that type of work for their livelihood which no other community does but they do it for their survival and livelihood. In this paper I throw the light upon the present living conditions and origin of Jogis in Afghanistan and their connections with Jogis of Jain origin these both communities are very petite in number now and the Jogis of Jain origin are may be now fully extinct.