Volume 4 Number 3 March 2018

Population Controls Environment

Authors: Li Zhou
Pages: 55-57
It is confirmedly shown that global emission of CO2 is determined by the world population, which is an ecological rule of the globe. It reveals that 1.3 billion is the break-even point of CO2 and more people lead to net emission. The ecological system maintains a metastable state with a constant per capita emission of CO2 until reaching 6.7 billion of population when the metastable state crashed. Both permafrost land and glaciers begin to melt, and the per capita emission of CO2 becomes remarkably higher. The quantitative correlation clearly shows that environmental problem cannot be solved by any technical measure, but to reduce the world population. Firstly, pull the world population back to an ecologically metastable state, and then gradually to the break-even point of CO2.

Challenges of Water Accessibility in Peri-Urban Areas in Tanzania: A Case of Kigamboni Dar es Salaam

Authors: Mafuru Juma ; Said Nuhu ; Fatuma Bakari Juma
Pages: 47-54
The quantity and quality of water delivered and used for domestic purpose in household level is an important aspect of domestic water supplies, which influence hygiene and public health. The provision of water services by city authorities in the new settlement (Peri-urban) is often not sustainable. The main purpose of this study was to assess the challenges of water accessibility in peri-urban areas of Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The cross section research design was adopted, where by questionnaire survey; key informants interview, field observations and documentation reviews were used to collect data in the field. The finding revealed that sources of water in the study area, are groundwater (shallow well and borehole/tube wells), water kiosks and piped water, other sources of water available to the households, include rain and surface water. Majority of the respondent’s main source of water was shallow well by (36.7%).The study revealed that water supply were reliable at different rates of which  (75.5 %) explained is very low reliable, On accessibility of community members to clean water the findings revealed that less than 50 percent have access clean and safe water. Majority 70.4% of the respondents spent 1 hour to access water. Water Piped into dwelling source had the least time that they spent less than 20 minutes for fetching water. The results revealed that water payment was largely done on daily, few pays per month.  The cost of water charged per 20 liters’ bucket/Gallon range was between Tsh 100/= –Tsh 500/= and household’s average water consumption per day was 17 buckets and average household expenditure on water was about Tsh 8,500/= per day and Tsh 255,000/= per month.  The findings revealed inadequate budget from LGA,s and Central government, distance, inadequate water infrastructure services were the major challenges for community to access safe and clean water. Government through DAWASA and Ministry of Water should play their role by allocating enough funds to accomplishing the already drilled wells in Kisarawe II, Kimbiji and Kibada water project.

Land Governance in Ethiopia: Towards Evaluating Global Trends

Authors: Daniel Behailu ; Adisu Kasa
Pages: 35-46
Land is a vital resource and a driver of economic growth and development. The way it is governed and administered therefore has a significant impact on a certain country’s future. Land and the institutions that govern its ownership and use greatly affect economic growth and contributes in poverty reduction. Lack of access to land and inefficient or corrupt systems of land administration have a negative impact on a country’s investment climate and general wellbeing of the society. Well-functioning land institutions, land markets and easy access to credit facilities for entrepreneurs contributes for development. Land governance must help to eradicate poverty, not contribute to it. Hence, Ethiopia needs to have a land governance policy that fosters transfer of land rights, fosters respect for human rights, and rescues the environment from imminent peril in line with the principles of sustainable development. Hence, this article contributes knowledge towards responsible land governance and evaluated the Ethiopian lands regime in line with the accepted norms of land governance.  Thus, the method of analysis is doctrinal legal research. 2011.

How Does Green Products? Price and Availability Impact Malaysians? Green Purchasing Behavior?

Authors: Muhammed Abdullah Sharaf ; Selvan Perumal
Pages: 28-34
Green marketing refers to all what has to do with a product or service from its production process to its purchase by consumers. This study aims to investigate the influence of products price and availability on the actual green purchasing behavior of Malaysian consumers. 394 questionnaires were distributed to Malaysians in 3 states in the northern region namely Kedah, Perlis and Penang. Both SPSS version 18.0 and PLS-SEM were used to analyze the obtained data. The results of the study showed that price has a significant relationship with purchasing behavior of green products, while product’s availability showed no significant influence on green purchasing among Malaysian consumers. This paper helps in bringing more understanding on the actual purchasing behavior of green products in Malaysia.