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Volume 6 Number 4 April 2020

Permutation of UTME Multiple-Choice Test Items on Performance in Use of English and Mathematics Among Prospective Higher Education Students


Authors: Bassey A. Bassey ; Isaac O. Ubi ; German E. Anagbougu ; Valentine J. Owan
Pages: 483-493
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.483.493
Abstract
In an attempt to curtail examination malpractice, the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) has been generating different paper types with a different order of test items in the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME). However, the permutation of test items may compromise students’ performance unintentionally because constructive suggestions in theory and practice recommend that test items be sequenced in ascending order of difficulty. This study used data collected from a random sample of 1,226 SSIII students to ascertain whether the permutation of test items has any effect on the performance of students in two different subjects (Use of English and Mathematics). The study adopted the Equivalent Groups Quasi-Experimental Research Design with three independent groups. Findings emerged, amongst others, that there is a significant difference in the performance scores of prospective university students’ in use of English and Mathematics examintaions arranged in three different orders (ED, DE, R). There are no significant gender differences in the performance of students in Use of English and Mathematics based on test item permutation. However female students perform better than male students when test items are arranged in ascending order of difficulty while males perform better when test items are arranged in descending order of difficulty. It was concluded that the permutation of test items in UTME examination tends to affect the performance of students in Use of English and Mathematics. This finding has implications for the future conduct of UTME examinations and enrolment into higher education as the randomization of UTME test items changes the difficulty order of different paper types. It was recommended that other measures of curtailing examination malpractices that would not affect students’ academic performance should be adopted.



The Emergence of Nigerian Maritime Cabotage Laws and the Future of Its Maritime Commerce


Authors: Gabriel E. B. Inyang ; Amarachukwu Onyinyechi Ijiomah
Pages: 476-482
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.476.482
Abstract
Nigerian maritime cabotage laws evolved to add efficiency to the country’s maritime industry, especially in the area of indigenous fleet expansion, ship building and human capacity development. The aim was to curtail foreign dominance and unequal competition by non-Nigerian operators. Since the enactment of the Cabotage Act, attempt at successful and beneficial implementation could not be achieved due to regulatory inadequacies. What is obtainable now includes foreign dominance, unfair competition, policy failure, institutional ineffectiveness, absent of stable local capacity, regulatory problems, fiscal deficiencies, lack of political will by the government. In view of these inadequacies, appropriate remedial regulatory measures need be considered. These include regulatory overhaul or ample review of all extant maritime laws which are no more relevant in a cabotage regime. There is need for institutional reforms which will engender adequate and effective monitoring and enforcement. Fiscal and financial legal framework needs to be put in place to strengthen this inadequate and weak policy. This article submits that, cabotage laws which are supposed to be the framework of transformation from foreign to indigenous dominance of coastal shipping, have fallen short of the intended objectives. It therefore requires proper and adequate review to cure the obvious defects.



United States Visa Ban on Officials of the ICC: International Criminal Justice on Trial


Authors: James E. Archibong
Pages: 468-475
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.468.475
Abstract
The isolation of the United States (US) from the International Criminal Court (ICC) treaty has dealt a heavy blow on the potency of the Court. By making efforts to frustrate the ICC’s activities and withholding support for United Nations (UN) peacekeeping unless United States (US) citizens are exempted from international enforcement arising out of such operations; and mandating other countries to sign treaties such as the "bilateral immunity agreements" that exempts the US citizens from Court proceedings as a criteria for rendering assistance or giving aids, the US makes it more difficult to enforce the laws prohibiting genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. The recent decision by the US to deny officials of the ICC access to its territory, even to the UN headquarters places a further strain on the Court’s efforts to achieve international justice. This paper highlights the implications of the US antagonism to the ICC on international criminal justice.



Evolving a Combative Framework and Strategy for Effective Maritime Counter Piracy Measures in Nigeria


Authors: Gabriel E. B. Inyang ; Odey Stephen Agi
Pages: 459-467
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.459.467
Abstract
Maritime piracy is a global problem affecting the entire world, particularly, world maritime, which contributes a huge percentage of the logistics in world economy. Being a worldwide problem, it is necessary to develop a counter piracy law for Nigeria, gearing towards both domestic and regional jurisdictions for effective application and enforcement. Sea navigation through ships is the major means of movement of finished goods and raw materials globally. The sea being the heritage of mankind, any activity that negatively affects sea transportation affects the world economy, nay, Nigerian economy. Maritime pirates over the ages have been considered as enemies of humanity. Piracy has been a major problem in all major sea routes worldwide, including the gulf of Guinea. Notwithstanding all the criminal activities of maritime pirates in and around the gulf of Guinea including Nigerian coastal waters, there is no legal framework formulated to accost and punish pirates to curtail their activities. It is quite unfortunate that the international Convention developed by the UNCLOS, 1982, to fight piracy and armed robbery at sea is yet to be domesticated as part of Nigerian municipal law. The various agreements and guidelines churned out by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), on this subject are yet to become part of Nigerian policy as recommended to member states of IMO. This article recommends that Section 12 of the Nigerian 1999 Constitution should domesticate these conventions and guidelines as counter piracy law for the country to make the fight against maritime piracy and armed robbery successful.



Community Resources for the Development of Social Studies Curriculum in Nigeria


Authors: Essien Essien Ekpenyong ; Wali Ruth C. ; Imaobong Marcus Akpan ; Edward I. Ajang
Pages: 452-458
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.452.458
Abstract
The practice of any school curriculum entails the embracing of every available resource that can enhance teaching and learning effectively. Social Studies Education by its nature of having contact with the physical, social and economic environment stands a better opportunity of tapping into the resources found around schools and their immediate communities. Be that as it may, it has been observed that this quest has not been fully actualized by those concerned thereby, contributing to the failure of meeting set goals in this area of study. This study however, takes a look at the role of community resources in teaching and learning and the underlying challenges in the effective application of these community resources in the development of Social Studies curriculum. For a better description of how these community resources can enhance effective understanding of Social Studies curriculum content, the work also gives illustrations on how these community resources can be incorporated in the teaching and learning of Social Studies concepts.



The Mediating Role of Media Internalization in Body Scrutinization and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Thai Homosexual Male Youth


Authors: Phantipa Pattamarruk ; Kullaya Pisitsungkagarn ; Somboon Jarukasemthawee ; Thanapon Leangsuksant
Pages: 446-451
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.446.451
Abstract
The debilitating impact of body image dissatisfaction has been well-documented, leading to attempts to propose ways to alleviate the dissatisfaction. These proposals are drawn primarily from findings from studies on female youth. The current study extends this work, and contributes to an emerging initiative to attempt to reduce body image dissatisfaction in homosexual male youth. Past empirical findings have identified these adolescents to be particularly prone to body image dissatisfaction. With the formal operational stage of cognitive development, adolescents are particularly self-conscious and scrutinize their body image more critically, leading to body image dissatisfaction. The aim of the current study was to identify a potential protective factor that might help reduce the impact of body scrutinization in Thai homosexual male adolescents. These participants were selected due to the relative lack of published research on body image in Asian homosexual males. Additionally, despite its orientation toward the collectivistic fulfillment of social roles and obligations, Thai culture is quite accepting of sexual minorities. Homosexual male body image ideals are portrayed in the media with relatively high frequency. For this reason, internalization of media influence was selected as a potential mediator of the relationship between body scrutinization and body image dissatisfaction. Data were collected from 114 Thai homosexual male youths who responded to online questionnaires measuring body scrutinization, media internalization, and body image dissatisfaction. As hypothesized, findings demonstrated that body scrutinization significantly predicted both body image dissatisfaction and media internalization. Media internalization significantly but partially mediated the relationship between body scrutinization and body image dissatisfaction. Implications were discussed in terms of the preventative and therapeutic potentials for reducing media influence on body image dissatisfaction when the scrutinization was engaged.



An Evaluation of Children Video Puzzle Interaction using Tablet: An Actual Usage Experience from Malaysia


Authors: Liew Tze Hui ; Lau Siong Hoe ; Hishamuddin Ismail
Pages: 436-445
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.436.445
Abstract
This paper introduces the hybrid UTAUT model to explore pre-school children’s actual interaction experience with video puzzle using tablets. For the past 10 years, there is much debate on the factors affecting children’s actual interaction experience with interactive edutainment using tablet and there is a general agreement that children need access to tablet for learning activities and cognitive development. However, little research was carried out to evaluate the actual interaction motivation that determines the learning experience of pre-school children in their interaction with video puzzle using tablet. In Malaysia, the use of tablet in pre-school has been increasing rapidly, therefore, research to understand actual children video puzzle interaction using tablet to meaningfully support children’s learning activities is much demanded. The main constructs of UTAUT had been maintained by integrating two new constructs, namely, Playability and Self-Efficacy into a hybrid model.  The moderating variables in UTAUT model were removed as the respondents are homogeneous in their demography characteristics.  The findings indicated that Social Influence have a negative relationship on actual interaction experience with video puzzle using tablet among pre-school children in Malaysia. This can be attributed to pre-school children having a smaller and limited social cycle and the facts that pre-school children will mainly refer to their parents and teachers for advices on the adoption of new innovation.



Effect of Bibliotherapy on Truant Behaviour of Schooling Adolescents in North West Nigeria


Authors: Isiaku Wada Bashir ; Adama Grace Ngozi ; Nwankwo Benedict Chimezie ; Abida Ahmad Baba ; Ali Tamasi Muaz ; Onu, Victoria Chikodi ; Nweke Prince Onyemaechi
Pages: 425-435
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.425.435
Abstract
The study investigated the effect of bibliotherapy on the truant behaviour of schooling adolescents in North West Nigeria. Two research questions were posed to guide the study. The study adopted a Quasi-experimental design. The population for the study comprised of 824 identified SSII schooling adolescents with truancy behavioural problems drawn from the four selected schools in the North West Nigeria. The sample size used for the study was 296 SS II schooling adolescents with truant behaviour. The study adopted a structured questionnaire which was developed by the researchers for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts drawn from Department of Educational Foundations (Special Education Unit), University of Nigeria, Nsukka; Department of Educational Psychology and Counselling, Aminu Kano College of Islamic and Legal Studies, Kano State and Department of Psychology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. The reliability of the instruments was subjected to Cronbach Alpha Statistics and reliability coefficient of 0.91 was obtained. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that school location is not a significant factor in the mean truancy behaviour of schooling adolescents; though urban schooling adolescents had a reduced mean truancy behaviour compared to their rural counterpart. The findings of the study with respect to the interaction effect of treatments and gender on schooling adolescents’ truancy behaviours revealed no significant interaction effect of treatments and gender. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that special educators, guidance counsellors, educational psychologists, and curriculum planners should plan a programme of intervention based on the bibliotherapy techniques for schooling adolescents.



Political Economy of Imperialism in Iraq


Authors: Abada Ifeanyichukwu Michael ; Omeh Paul Hezekiah
Pages: 419-424
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.419.424
Abstract
The growing influence of America in the global economy coupled with her protectionist policies in the recent time have put pressure to comity of transitional states especially African and Middle East. The invasion of Iraq by America is the driven factor of former’s oil deposits that had been a source of interest to America. Meanwhile, Americans had over the years accused Iraq of harboring Weapons of Mass Destruction, an antic for her imperialist expedition. However, it is against this backdrop that the study geared toward appreciating co-factor variables of imperialism that had influenced American’s interest on Iraq and the attendant implication to the economies of two actors. The paper utilized mixed method approach and analyzed using analytic induction. The theoretical framework of analysis was anchored on the economic radical theory, a strand of Marxian theory of economic structuralism. The finding of the study reveals that despite the established Westphalia Treaty of 1648 on the sovereignty of nation states, Americans had devoid odds and invaded, plundered the economy of Iraq. The paper strongly recommends among others; sanctioning of America for neglecting the world standing order on sovereignty of states. Also, Iraq needs to be compensated by America through reconstruction and rehabilitation.



Re-Examine the Relationship Between Income Inequality and Economic Growth in Egypt in 2004 – 2015


Authors: Trần Mai Trang
Pages: 413-418
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.413.418
Abstract
This article aims to re-examine the link between income inequality and economic growth in Egypt between 2004 and 2015. Income inequality and economic growth are controversial issues. There are many views that inequality negatively affects economic growth. In contrast, some hybrid scientists argue that moderate-income inequalities positively affect economic growth. In the period 2004-2015, Egypt experienced an unstable growth rate and had many incidents during this period such as the Arab Spring. Income inequality has been considered as one of the causes of the Arab Spring revolution. The regression results of the test model in this paper show the correlation between income inequality and economic growth and several other factors in 2004 – 2015 in Egypt.



Queen Bee Syndrome at the Workplace; Perspectives of Female Business Students at a South African Private University


Authors: Saayman Zandria ; Zogli Luther-King Junior ; Pelser Hennie
Pages: 406-412
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.406.412
Abstract
It has been found out that some female leaders exercise certain behavioural traits in the workplace that are discriminatory towards other females. This behaviour is referred to as the Queen Bee Syndrome. To shed light on the syndrome, this paper aims to discover the perceptions of final year female Bachelor of Commerce (BCom) students in a South African private university about their opinions on female leadership and to discover the prevalence of the Queen Bee Syndrome. Qualitative interviews were conducted on final year female students in a South African private university in Pietermaritzburg. The sample was obtained using snowball sampling method. The information gathered was analysed using content analysis. The key discoveries made were that the female students generally would prefer to work with a male manger due to the negative characteristics of competitiveness, emotionality and jealousy that was associated with the female leaders they have worked with. Respondents were also of the opinion that the Queen Bee Syndrome exists and that it is a resultant of society norms spilling over into the workplace. It is believed that social norms contribute to this problem, hence it is crucial that discriminatory behaviour in society be alleviated to strengthen and support the current women movement fighting for equality.



The Role of Minangkabau Ulamas in the Islamization of the Kingdoms of Gowa and Tallo


Authors: Nelmawarni Nelmawarni ; Martin Kustati ; Hetti Waluati Triana ; Firdaus Firdaus ; Warnis Warnis
Pages: 399-405
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.399.405
Abstract
The study aims to explain the important role of Minangkabau ulamas in the Islamization of the Bugis kingdoms in South Sulawesi. The historical approach was used in this study where the Heuristic activities were carried out to collect the main data. Document analysis of books, papers, journals and other relevant writings and interviews with customary figures were done. The results of the study found that the three ulamas came from Minangkabau and expertise in their respective fields and spread Islam. Datuk ri Bandang, who lived in Gowa had expertised in the field of jurisprudence, taught and propagated Islam by using Islamic sharia as its core teaching. Datuk ri Patimang, who lived in Luwu, had expertise in the field of tawhid, spread Islam by prioritizing the teachings of tawhid. Datuk ri Tiro, who lived in Tiro, had expertise in the field of Sufism, taught and developed Islam with Sufism teachings. It is recommended that the involvement of the three ulamas in Islamization in Gowa and Tallo can be seen in the diversity of the Bugis and Makassar communities.



Women Education and National Unity in Nigeria


Authors: Etuk Grace Reuben ; Bassey Ugo Samuel
Pages: 394-398
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.394.398
Abstract
Nigeria is a perfect example of a plural society, characterized by divergent sociocultural groups. Unfortunately, divergent groups also imply divergent interests. As a result, conflicts have featured prominently in the country, as each group struggles to project its own interests. This makes national unity a pressing need, to guarantee that against popular views, Nigeria will not disintegrate, even in the face of the diversities characterizing it. To achieve unity in Nigeria, several strategies have been adopted, but women education has hardly been given a consideration as a mean to achieving this all important need in the country. Therefore, taking cognizance of women’s peculiar roles in society, this paper analyses the need to harness their capacities in such roles via education, to facilitate the achievement unity within the entity called Nigeria.



The Leadership Styles and Its Role in Improving Motivation Level of the Administrators in Jordan Football Association


Authors: Hasan Mohammed Al-Khaldi
Pages: 389-393
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.389.393
Abstract
The study aimed to identify the leadership style and its role in raising the level of motivation among the leaders working in the Football Association in Jordan. The researcher used a special measure to ensure validity and stability of the procedure. The study sample included (54) administrative individuals in the association and after conducting the appropriate statistical analysis, it was found that there is a strong (correlation) between the democratic style and the application of an incentive system in the Football Association in Jordan. One of the most prominent recommendations is the need to provide all that is necessary for the establishment of internal regulations through which a system of incentives can be easily applied and provide fair opportunities to employees in this context.



Usage of two-stage Integrating Data Envelopment Analysis to Propose the Best Strategic Alliance: A Case of the Green Logistics Providers


Authors: Nhu-Ty Nguyen
Pages: 374-388
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.374.388
Abstract
In the wave of internationalization, many companies use strategic alliance like an approach to expand and strengthen their businesses. Strategic alliance is also considered to be a highly intelligent approach in green logistics for environment and e-commerce growing quickly and effectively because this is the critical concern worldwide to balance the economic development with the environmental protection. However, a suitable methodology to evaluate and analyze performance of partners is a critical and significant issue for top managers to have effective decisions making for business strategy including alliance strategy in the future. This will improve business performance and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions among the hot trend of development of green logistics providers. Over past to future forecasting, this paper tries to propose a new approach of data envelopment analysis (DEA) based on grey forecasting and neural network, helping the target company – CSX Corporation make a well-considered decision to select the best strategic alliance candidates. The results indicate that Hub Group Inc. and Con-way Freight are the very best candidates for CSX to have strategic alliances. This combination is suggested not only good for the target company but also beneficial for the partners as well. This is a new studying method in both academic research studies and practical applications by combining Grey theory, neural network and DEA model which probably gives a better “past-present-future” insights into evaluation performance of an industry.



Court Decision Publication and Judicial Reform Based on Electronic Court and Its Implication to Public Trust in Indonesia


Authors: Amran Suadi
Pages: 365-373
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.365.373
Abstract
This paper is motivated by the spirit of judicial reform in Indonesia in the reformation era. The right to access information on judicial institutions is an integral part of the constitutional rights that guaranteed by the Indonesian Constitution and must be fulfilled. The question proposed in this paper is how far the court decisions publication and judicial reform based on electronic courts implicated to increase public trust to judicial institutions in Indonesia? On the one hand, public information disclosure is a demand for democracy, transparency, and accountability of judicial institutions to gain the public trust. On the other hand, the level of public trust to the judicial institution is still low. The research objective is to provide a general description the judicial information system services based on electronic court through the Supreme Court Decisions Directory and its implication to increase the public trust to the judicial institutions in Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that the public can now easily access all court information ranging from case administration service procedures to issuing court decisions, which also has implications to increase the public trust to the judicial institutions itself. The evidence can be seen in the decision-making filing program in the last ten years, in which the Indonesian Supreme Court has also succeeded in publishing 4,661,021 court decisions, consisting of 4,403,428 at first-level court decisions, 123,995 at appellate court decisions, 100,863 at verdict decisions, and 32,735 at reconsi¬deration decisions.



The Board of Directors Characteristics and Timeliness of Annual Financial Reporting for Jordanian Commercial Banks


Authors: Nour Smail Bani Amer ; Saqer Sulaiman Al-Tahat
Pages: 357-364
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.357.364
Abstract
This study aims at investigating the relationship between the board of directors’ characteristics, such as (the board of directors’ size, board of directors’ meetings, board of directors’ independency, and the academic qualification for its members), and the timeliness of issuance of annual financial reports in Jordanian banks. The study adopted descriptive analytical approach whereas the population of the study in overall Jordanian banks achieved 16 banks during the study period between 2010-2017 i.e. this study lasted eight years while the number of viewers reached 128 viewer. A number of statistical methods for data analysis were used such as descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, maximum values and minimum values), and logistic regression analysis was used in testing study hypothesis. The findings revealed the compliance of Jordanian banks within the required timetable Securities Commission was intermediate. Also, there is a positive relationship between the board of directors’ size, the board of directors’ independency and the timeliness of issuance of annual financial reports. In addition, there is no relationship between the board of directors’ independency, the academic qualification for its members, and the timeliness of issuance of annual financial reports.



The Politics of Ethnic Identity: The Case of Balinese Migrants in Lampung Province, Indonesia


Authors: Zainal Arifin ; Maskota Delfi ; Sidarta Pujiraharjo
Pages: 349-356
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jssr.64.349.356
Abstract
Lampung is a multicultural region where various ethnic groups in Indonesia can be found and settle in this region, and among them is The Balinese. The Balinese community migrated to Lampung through the transmigration process in 1963 due to the eruption of Mount Agung. One of the Bali migrant communities lives in Bali Sadhar village in Way Kanan Regency of Lampung Province. This Balinese (Bali Sadhar) Community in Lampung lives side by side with other communities that have very different cultural values, such as Lampung, Semende, Ogan, Javanese, and Sundanese. Balinese communities have a strong Hindu cultural identity which can cause them to often conflict with other ethnic groups around, but the Balinese community (Bali Sadhar) in Way Kanan can actually live in harmony with the surrounding communities. This article explains how identity politics is carried out by the Bali Sadhar community in Lampung. The success of identity politics of the Bali Sadhar community is done by redefining the cultural values (Hinduism) they have in accordance with their environmental conditions. As the result, these people are still able to realize their cultural identity and also able to coexist in harmony with the other communities.