Volume 4 Number 6 June 2018

The Challenges of Traditional Institutions in Communal Conflict Management in Nigeria: The Case of Niger Delta Region

Authors: Azu Victoria N.
Pages: 89-94
The declining role of traditional institutions in the management of communal conflicts in Nigeria tends to have watered down the relevance of these institutions in community leadership, especially as it concerns conflict management.  This has become a source of worry and hence necessitated this study.  This paper therefore examined the challenges of traditional institutions in the management of communal conflicts.  Data for this study was generated from secondary sources which include related published works on library shelves, internet materials and primarily from researcher’s personal observations.  Specific reference was made to the leadership roles played by these institutions in the traditional communities prior to the advent of colonialism. The study was anchored on the African Renaissance Theory which is rooted in African traditional values. Findings revealed that westernisation and its politics, coupled with primitive politics occurring in the Nigeria political arena have altogether distracted and deviated the consciousness of these institutions from their primary role as custodians of traditional and customary values, especially in the area of ensuring peaceful co-existence among communities.  The paper therefore argues that not until the traditional institutions are once more repositioned to assume their traditional roles and responsibilities, in partnership with the legal institutions of the state, management of communal conflicts will continue to be problematic, while peace building and consensus will remain a mirage.

Courtesy Expressions Between China and Japan:  On Face Theory

Authors: Zhu Shuai
Pages: 84-88
Courtesy expression, as lubricant, is a method of interaction with people by which using moderate praises and compliments which in an effort tries to build harmonious relationship with others. In this paper, I devote myself to figure out the feasibility of courtesy expression in daily using between China and Japan at the condition of Face theory proposed by Brown and Levinson, even though these two countries share many a similarity with each other. The insights of this paper emphasize how Chinese and Japanese behave diversely during daily communication in aim of mutual understanding and better communication with westerners.