The Journal of Social Sciences Research
Online ISSN: 2411-9458
Print ISSN: 2413-6670
Print ISSN: 2413-6670
Volume 5 Number 7 July 2019
Re-Appraising the Statutory and Ethical Roles of Lawyers Pursuant to Nigeria’s Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015
Authors: Olujobi, Olusola Joshua ; Oyewunmi, Olabode ; Igbinoba Ebeguki ; Olusola-Olujobi Temilola
Breach of fundamental human rights and rule of law are challenges that have tainted Nigeria’s image and impaired sustainable development of her justice system. These breaches are: torture, distorting bail procedures among others. These illegal practices if unchecked may culminate in the denial of justice. The lawyer’s role therefore, is vital in fostering a culture of enduring dispensation of justice, especially in the light of the many challenges bedeviling Nigeria’s criminal justice system. The paper re-appraises the statutory and ethical roles of lawyers pursuant to the Nigeria’s Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015 in facilitating stringent compliance with the Act to safeguard the rule of law. The study is a doctrinal legal research with a library based approach. It adopts primary sources such as statutes, judicial authorities and secondary sources such as textbooks, journals/articles and internet sources. The research recommends among others, reform and strengthening of the judiciary to promote its independence in the administration of criminal justice system. Lawyers must ensure that the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015 fosters dexterous management of cases by all adjudicatory bodies for speedy dispensation of justice, promotion of rule of law, and to end abuse of court processes. The study finds that Nigerian criminal law appears flawed in this regards. This research revealed series of human rights violations in Nigeria and equally highlighted the roles of lawyers in combating these abuses and suggest the use of modern forensic technologies in all courts in Nigeria which is currently lacking and made some recommendations.
Forecasting the Number of Children and Students Attending to School in Vietnam – The Interest in Gender Difference
Authors: Son Huynh Van ; Vu Giang Thien ; Long Le Duc ; Hong Nguyen Kim ; Huan Nguyen Thanh
Gender is considered as one of the important factors influencing the development of society, relating to many fields such as economy, politics, culture, education, etc. For the past years, Vietnam has actively promoted the gender equality, including the adjustment of the gender gap between the number of the children born throughout the years. However, the forecast results of the number of the children and students attending to school in Vietnam showed that there was quite large gender gap between boys and girls. This leads to the imbalance of gender; as a result, the assurance of the conditions for the education development becomes a challenge. Based on the analysis of the forecast results, the paper mentioned the responsibility of the education managers on the issue of the gender gap in the development of education and sustainable development.
Teacher’s Support and Student Involvement in Learning Activities on Enhancing Student Academic Achievement
Authors: Irwan Fariza Sidik ; Mohd Mahzan Awang ; Abdul Razaq Ahmad
This study aims to identify the level of teachers’ support and the involvement of students in learning activities to improve academic achievement of high school students. Teachers’ support refers to teaching activities in the classroom. Student involvement is seen from the aspect of student learning in the classroom. The conceptual framework of the study combines two theories and a model which are the theory or model of the human ecological system (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), social capital theory (Robert and Putnam, 2000) and aspiration model of the Malaysian Education System in the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013–2025 (2013). This study is a survey using questionnaire for information. The sample was chosen randomly, involving a total of 200 form four students in Negeri Sembilan. The whole construct is at a high level of reliability of 0.926. This study uses descriptive analysis of mean and standard deviation using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24. The results show that teachers’ support and student involvement in classroom learning activities are at moderate level. The implication of the study found that teachers and the school need to increase their efforts, programs and activities in improving student academic achievement.
Analyzing Determinants of Product Placements in the Movie 'The Internship’
Authors: Mahir Pradana ; Syarifuddin Syarifuddin ; Haeruddin Hafid
A Hollywood movie entitled ’The Internship’, which was released in the year 2013 is known for its accurate portrayal of a world leading information technology company, located in Silicon Valley, California, USAThis paper intends to find out how far the audience received the company-endorsed messages. The research was conducted in three steps, the first one involved a movie showing, after which the students needed to finish submit a resume assignment about what message they received from the movie. The second step was to spread the questionnaire to 100 students, containing indicators from product placement theory. The last step was analyzing the data using factor analysis to find out what determinants are the most influential in keeping the viewers’ interest and to find out whether the movie was enough to show the true conditions of the company.
Modelling the Effect of Website Quality and Perceived Information Value on Tourist Satisfaction: A Survey of Hotels in Phuket, Thailand
Authors: Nuanrath Wattana ; Professor Dr. Phattarawan Tantong
This paper presents the investigation of the effect of website quality on tourist satisfaction. It focuses on an issue of the hotel industry in Phuket Province, Thailand: Does the website quality of hotels affect the relationship between the perceived value and tourist satisfaction? The results indicate that only the service quality aspect of website quality was affect positively associated with tourist satisfaction, whereas the service quality and information quality of hotel websites were not affect associated with the perceived information value. The perceived information value was affect strongly positively associated with tourist satisfaction.
Financing Product Design for Fisheries Through Sharia Micro-Finance Institutions
Authors: Anas Alhifni ; Tuti Kurnia ; Biyati Ahwarumi ; Rully Trihantana
Fishermen in Indonesia have limited access to financial assistant from banks because they do not meet criteria set by the bank. One institution that could be able to provide access and solve this problem is sharia micro-finance institution (SMFI). This study aims for identifying fishermen needs on SMFI financing products and proposing the most suitable financing design which can be applied through SMFI. The study uses qualitative approach by adopting phenomenology technique and holding a focus group discussion (FGD) to acquire the intended design. The study results showed that in general, fishermen of Palabuhan Ratu need financing product from SMFI like consumptive financing for living or family needs and productive financing that can be used to support the sustainability of their business such as purchasing equipment, boats, fishing tools and so on. The proposed design which formulated by this study incorporates double-approaches financing design; firstly, optimizing SMFI’s role as Baitul mall (house of fund) through two Islamic contracts model i.e. Qard or Qardhul Hasan and Temporary Waqf; secondly, both optimizing SMFI as Baitut Tamwil (house of financing) through three financing products that is Parallel Istishna (PI), Syirkah Mudharaba Mutlaqa (SMM) and Ijarah Muntahia Bit Tamlik (IMBT).
Intellectual Capital in light of Creativity and Competitiveness: Overview of Organizations’ Intangible Assets
Authors: Ahmad Yousef Areiqat
This research paper addresses several issues related to intellectual capital including a historical overview, the interest in elusive and intangible assets, and the impact of latest technological progress associated with the information technology developments. Ralph Stayer, CEO of Johnsonville Foods Company was the first to use the term “intellectual property” to refer to the organization’s intangible assets. This paper also identifies the concept of intellectual property being a set of all knowledge capacities of the organizations that help them achieve their goals. The intellectual property includes ideas, inventions, technology, general knowledge, computer soft wares and programs, designs, data skills, processes, creativity and applications in all organizations. The intellectual capital is knowledge that can be converted into profits. The components of this concept were identified as follows: Structural capital, human capital, social capital and the psychological capital. The paper also discusses various definitions provided by several researchers relating to intellectual capital, amongst them: Edvinsson & Malone, K. E. Svieby, Y. Malhorta, T. Stewart, Despres & Channvel, and Mckenzie & Winkelen. Moreover, the researcher tackled different measures used in intellectual property assessment and classified them in the following clusters: (1) descriptive measures/scales that describe some traits and characteristics and are based on exploring views related to identify the impact of the intellectual capital on organizations’ business (2) scales and models correlated to the intellectual capital and the intellectual property, which measure the intellectual capital components (3) market value scales and models which focus on the book value of knowledge assets and their market value (4) scales and models of knowledge revenues which are based on calculating returns on assets (ROA). The paper concluded stating that specific issues relating to companies and the nature of the market made it impossible to come up with certain results that can be generalized when making comparison among modern administrative trends or attitudes which defined the intellectual capital as intangible assets. Thus, the researcher urged researchers and parties interested in building up and upgrading companies’ capacities to exert intensive efforts to boost investment in human capital for its key and influential role in accomplishing excellence and enhance the position of these companies.
Homestead Food Gardeners’ Perceived Vulnerability to Poverty, Income Shocks and Entrepreneurial Activities in North West Province, South Africa
Authors: T. C. Maselwa ; A. S. Oyekale
Poor households are faced with several challenges which affect their income generating activities. In the Ramotshere Moiloa Local Municipality, where this study was carried out, unemployment and food insecurity are prevalent. The respondents were selected using a multistep sampling method. The first stage involved selection of villages, where HFG are commonly found were randomly selected. In the second stage, a snowball sampling process was employed to identify and select people involved in homestead food gardening, lastly was to find a sample of 110 HFG. The study found that HFG were experiencing different shocks. The regression coefficients indicated that entrepreneurial income was significantly and positively affected by socio-economic characteristics and shocks while it was significantly and negatively affected by shocks and challenges. The marginal parameters of perceived vulnerability to poverty were significantly and positively affected by entrepreneurial activities. Socio-economic characteristics significantly and negatively affected marginal effects of perceived vulnerability to poverty. It can be concluded that farmers still need more training and awareness on how to run agricultural businesses as well as non-farm businesses for increased entrepreneurial income, improved welfare and limited likelihood of poverty and vulnerability. It was recommended that government to intervene in matters that arose from this study by providing more awareness, opportunities and training for people in the study area in order to reduce and prevent future poverty.
Trade Policy Incentives, Market Structure and Productivity
Authors: Folarin Alayande ; Dr. Wumi Olayiwola
Trade policy incentives are drivers of within-sector productivity growth and rapid industrial transformation in many developing countries. In many African countries, the use of tariffs, trade prohibitions and a package of fiscal policy incentives are therefore components of industrialisation and backward integration programmes to accelerate the performance of priority sectors. However, the effectiveness of these policy instruments within specific industries, and the transmission mechanism of policy incentives to productivity has not been adequately explored in the literature. By focusing on oligopolistic market structure of the cement industry in Nigeria, this paper analysed the relative impact of trade policy incentives and market structure on the within-sector productivity. Using the autoregressive distributed lag model with structural breaks, the study finds that producer concentration ratio is the most significant driver of productivity. While the trade policy incentive indexed by effective rate of protection (ERP), and financing subsidies also impact productivity improvements, the magnitudes are significantly lower. The overwhelming significance of market structure nuance earlier research studies and provide new insights into the nexus between trade incentives and productivity in an oligopolistic industry.
Sustainable International Trade in Agricultural Goods: Emerging Markets Perspectives
Authors: Nataliia V. Stukalo ; Nataliya O. Krasnikova ; Olena V. Dzyad ; Olga G. Mihaylenko
Preservation of the environment, the sphere of the vital activity of the population, cultural heritage, promotion of the healthy lifestyle movement, the implementation of the “green” and resource saving technologies create more active demand for organic goods in the international trade. The ecological, social, economic and institutional merits of organic goods compared with traditional and genetically modified goods as well as the high pace of the growth of the international trade in organic agricultural goods enhance their role in the achievement of the goals of sustainable development. The article considers the international trade in organic goods as sustainable international trade. Based on the authors’ methods of the calculation of the integrated index of development of organic market of 15 developing countries, the positions, factors, prospects and conditions of the development of national markets of organic agricultural goods were identified. It was found that the market of organic goods of the Czech Republic is the most developed and balanced due to the high payment capacity of the population, the policy of the producer’s support, existence of the relevant certification of the produce during delivery to the EU market. The markets of the countries of Europe and Middle East (Poland, Romania, Turkey, and Ukraine) are growing mainly under the influence of supply factors; the markets of Asia and America (China, Brazil and Peru) – under the influence of demand factors, including the demand in the global market. The internal markets of China and India are developed insufficiently. The prospects of the development of markets of organic goods of Mexico, Brazil, India, China, Russia and Chili are related to the stimulation of the internal production of organic goods. In Ukraine, Peru, India, Chili, Mexico and Turkey, it is appropriate to popularize consumption of organic goods. Romania, Czech Republic, Brazil, Turkey, Ukraine and Russia have to facilitate the promotion of their own organic goods to the world market. It was found that a relatively high payment capable demand in the internal market is a necessary condition, and the growth of the share of organic goods in the export structure of the countries is an obligatory condition to enhance the positions of the countries in the global market of organic goods. The condition of an increase in the role of the countries developing in the world market of organic goods and the transition of the world economy to the principles of sustainable development were substantiated.
The Impact of Leadership on Organizational Learning via CSR and Organizational Innovativeness in Lebanese SMEs
Authors: Suzanne Charbaji ; Walid J. Dagher
Purpose-This paper investigates the firm-level benefits, especially for Lebanese small and medium enterprises (SMEs), of offering employees actions that are consistent with their sound values in addition to intellectual simulation within an innovative environment. It also evaluates variations in perceived effects of implementing service and transformational leadership on organizational learning, and examines the effect of causal factors such as perceived organizational innovativeness and CSR. Design/methodology/approach -A large convenient sample of 284 front-line managers was surveyed, using a 15-item instrument based on previous research. The researchers used factor analysis to ascertain construct validity, based on two suitability tests: the Kaisers-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy and the Bartless test of sphericity. The dimensions were found to be reliable, with Cronbach’s alpha ranging between 0.70 and 0.95. Findings- Findings from path analysis support the research hypotheses that impact of the direct and positive effect of leadership on organizational learning is strengthened via the mediating variables: CSR and innovativeness.Originality-This article empirically correlates two main fields of management research within the context of a developing country: leadership and organizational learning with focus on changing behavior.
Determinants of Growth in Cement Production in Nigeria
Authors: Folarin Alayande
Rapid industrialisation through sector-led industrial policies, prohibitive tariffs and aggressive subsidies has become commonplace in many African countries. In Africa’s largest economy, Nigeria, one of the flagship industries cited as a success story of successful industrialisation is the cement industry. However, the Nigerian cement industry manifests certain industry peculiarities such as oligopoly and bulky mass, that is not easily replicable across sectors. The aim of this paper is to isolate the key market characteristics and industry incentives granted to the cement sector so as to identify the most important determinants of the recorded phenomenal growth. Based on previous studies, four industry variables: concentration ratio, capital intensity, installed capacity and demand-supply gap were identified. In addition, four other macroeconomic variables that impacted production costs: financing costs, tax rate, real exchange rate and effective rate of protection; were also tested in the model. Data was obtained for the cement industry from 1980 to 2015 for the cointegration model. The results indicate that tariff protection was the most significant determinant of the growth in cement production. Subsidies, in form of tax holidays and cheaper financing, were only minimally important. The findings of this study underscore the huge cost of supporting the growth of industrialisation in African countries through various instruments.