Volume 4 Number 2 February 2018

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Profile, Challenges and 5-Year Outcome in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

Authors: Eziyi Josephine Adetinuola Eniola ; Amusa Yemisi Bola ; Olusoga-Peters Pelumi ; Uchendu Dubem ; Ikoko Mike ; Okunola Babatunde
Pages: 25-30
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is encountered regularly in otolaryngological practice in Nigeria. However, it is often misdiagnosed due to varied presenting symptoms, hence the need to describe the pattern of presentation and the challenges of treatment of the patients that presented to our centre with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: The pathology and clinical records were retrieved for all histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC) cancer registry. The epidemiological data, symptoms and stage at presentation, type of treatment, outcome and challenges encountered were obtained from the records. RESULTS: A total of 384 histologically confirmed head and neck malignancies were seen over the review period, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma constituted 32 (8.33%). There were 24(75.0%) male and 8(25.0%) female. The age ranged from 17 - 80 years with a mean of 54.5 + 12.2 years. All the patients presented with neck swelling, Nasal obstruction 14(43.75), Epistaxis 11(37.5%), Trismus 2(6.25%), and proptosis 2(6.25%). Twenty-four (75%) presented with stage four tumour. Treatment was primarily radiotherapy. Fifteen (46.88%) completed radiotherapy. Two (6.25%) patients had chemo-radiation and 15(46.88%) defaulted at different stages of treatment mainly due to financial constraints, others include beliefs and breakdown of radiotherapy machines. Prognosis was very poor with 1-year survival of 21.9% and five-year survival of 9.25%. Conclusion: Neck swelling, Epistaxis and nasal blockade are the most common presenting symptoms. Patients present late leading to poor prognosis. Financing treatment out of pocket is a major reason for presenting late and defaulting during management.

Computed Tomography Scanners Background Radiation in Some Selected Hospitals within the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: E. C. Nwokorie ; S. A. Jonah ; M. Y. Onimisi
Pages: 20-24
This study determined the Indoor and Outdoor background radiation of the Computed Tomography Scanners (CT) rooms in some selected hospitals within the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. The measurements were done with the survey meters held in the CT room while the CT machine is switched off and around the department or unit outside the CT room. The data measured was read on the display screen of the survey meters. The average dose of the ten readings taken in a hospital was recorded under the area code assigned to that Hospital. The Results showed that the CT indoor doses ranged from 0.141µSv/hr ± 0.02 to 0.213µSv ± 0.03, with a mean value of 0.171µSv/hr ± 0.03. And the CT outdoor doses ranged from 0.165 µSv/hr ± 0.02 to 0.250 µSv/hr ± 0.04, with a mean value of 0.208 µSv/hr ± 0.0.03. Also, the Mean dose values for CT indoor and Outdoor were 0.171µSv/hr± 0.03 and 0.208µSv/hr± 0.03 respectively. The mean background radiation values gotten for CT indoor and outdoor doses are all within the acceptable limits for natural background radiation levels for indoor and outdoor when the machine was in operation. When the indoor and outdoor doses were added, it is about 1.56mSv per year from CT scanners when added to estimated 2mSv from radon gas. The background radiation will be 3.56mSv per year for Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.