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International Journal of Healthcare and Medical Sciences

Online ISSN: 2414-2999
Print ISSN: 2415-5233

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)


Volume 7 Number 2 April 2021

Seasonal Variation in Mycological Quality of Air Environment Around a Major Market Along East-West Road in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Authors: Glory Richard ; Ebinyo Rebecca Aseibai
Pages: 18-25
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijhms.72.18.25
The distribution of bio-aerosols in diverse environments is a major concern to aero-microbiologists and environmentalists in general. The study evaluated the mycological quality of the air environment around a market along East-West road in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Petri dish containing sterile Potatoes dextrose agar was exposed for 10 minutes around a market along East-West road in Bayelsa state at a height of 1 meter. The density and diversity of the isolates were determined following standard mycological procedures. The density of the fungi–aerosols ranged from 0.0073 - 0.0268 CFU/min-m2 and was statistical higher in dry (November, January and March) compared to wet (May, July and September) seasons, an indication of seasonal influence. A total of 11 fungi species were recorded with 5 predominant species viz Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium chlamydosporum and Penicillium species (occurring in ≥66.67% of the study months), while 6 species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Microsporum canis and Mucor species are opportunistic occurring in ≤50% of the study months). Most fungi species are found in the soil, and are known to produce toxins and cause diseases. There is need for a concerted effort by local government authorities via its agencies to sensitize people on proper hygiene practices around markets.

Assessment of the Prevalence of Malaria and Typhoid Fever among Apparently Healthy Undergraduates

Authors: Iyevhobu Kenneth Oshiokhayamhe ; Obodo Basil Nnaemeka ; Irobonosen Osaze Israel ; Ken-Iyevhobu Benedicta Agumeile
Pages: 13-17
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijhms.72.13.17
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a type of unicellular microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. Commonly, the disease is transmitted via a bite from an infected female Anopheles mosquito, which introduces the organisms from its saliva into a person’s circulatory system. In the blood, the protists travel to the liver to mature and reproduce. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever and headache which in severe cases can progress to coma or death. The disease is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions in a broadband around the equator, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americans Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. The vast majority of deaths are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae cause a generally milder form of malaria that is rarely fatal. The result showed that prevalence of typhoid fever in both male and female are 9 (%) and 21 (21%) respectively. The distribution of this result was statistically significant (p<0.05; X2=4.745). The result showed that prevalence of typhoid fever in both male and female are 6 (6%) and 4 (4%) respectively. The distribution of this result was not statistically significant (p>0.05; X2=0.105). The result showed that prevalence of the co-infection in both male and female are 3 (3%) and 2 (2%) respectively. The distribution of this result was not statistically significant (p>0.05; X2=0.205). The result showed that co-infection was negatively correlated with typhoid fever in both male (r=-0.055) and female (r=-0.074) subjects. Also co infection was negatively correlated with malaria for male subjects (r=-0.044) while it is positively correlated with the female subjects (r=0.335). Similarly typhoid fever was negatively correlated with malaria in both male (r=-0.079) and females (r=-0.105) subjects. Conclusively, the results in this study showed that the prevalence of malaria and typhoid co-infections are low which means the no association was found between malaria and typhoid fever infections within the study area. Hence one cannot actually say that malaria may predispose to typhoid fever. Also  cross reacting antigens are widely distributed in the microbial world and since there will always be repeated exposures to salmonella species in endemic regions, increased efforts should be made to find a better, more rapid, sensitive and specific clinical and cultural methods.

Neuro-Anatomical Changes of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on Advanced Imaging: A Literature Review

Authors: James McKivigan ; Gregory Gilmour
Pages: 6-12
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijhms.72.6.12
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a major public health issue in the United States that accounts for approximately 50% of poisoning cases in the nation each year and around 50,000 emergency room visits. In most instances of CO poisoning, the culprit is a malfunctioning or poorly tended heating system within the home or, occasionally, commercial building, which causes the system to leak this hazardous gas. One of the more insidious aspects of CO poisoning is that the gas is odorless and colorless, and victims of CO poisoning often do not realize that there is a problem until they begin to experience the effects of poisoning and have no choice but to seek medical attention. Unfortunately, many victims of CO poisoning die before they are able to seek treatment. This paper makes use of a qualitative, systematic literature review to examine the four major parts of the brain that are most severely affected by CO poisoning. Overall, the literature review showed that the white matter, globus pallidus, basal ganglia, and cortex are the parts of the brain most severely impacted by CO poisoning. While many CO poisoning victims do make it to the hospital on time and are treated, they may nonetheless suffer long-term neurological consequences as a result of their exposure. As such, CO poisoning is a major public health issue.