Volume 4 Number 6 June 2018

Medical Aliteracy Among Senior Medical Personnel in Akoko South West Local Government Ondo State

Authors: Olusegun O. Owolewa ; Graceful O. Ofodu
Pages: 123-133
The issue of medical aliteracy has drawn both scholars and medical practitioners’ attention in the recent years. The negative cost of medical aliteracy has continued to constitute major threats to health related issue which has resulted in high mortality rate, high medical expenditure and medical underperformance among others. On this premise the study examined the influence of medical aliteracy among senior medical personnel. The study employed descriptive research design and Chi-Square to test the research hypotheses. A total number of 50 questionnaires were designed to collect information from the sampled population through a random sampling. From the result of the analysis it was revealed that factors such as ineffective supervision of medical personnel, low patient literacy level, lack of personnel-patients engagement could lead to medical aliteracy among senior medical personnel. Senior medical personnel have the knowledge of medical aliteracy and its implications on for medical personnel and the public. Medical aliteracy has an implication on health sector performance which includes increase in mortality rate, increase health expenditure, widening of the gap between patients – medical personnel communication among others. Perception of medical aliteracy has significant influence on medical personnel performance. The study concluded that, medical aliteracy is prevalent among medical personnel and patients and is associated with many poor medical outcomes in the health sector. It was however recommended that medical literacy training, schemes and programmes should be designed according to the needs of the different medical personnel and should therefore be included in medical professional training programs.

Formulation and Evaluation of Polymeric Nanoparticles of Rifampicin for Anti-Tubercular Therapy

Authors: Sameer S. Sheaikh ; Shrikrishna K. Harkal ; Rahul P. Gaikwad ; Rahul W. Gawali ; Dinesh P. Deshmukh
Pages: 117-122
Polymeric Nanoparticles of Rifampicin were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation technique using poly methyl methacrylate as polymer matrix and Poly vinyl alcohol as surfactant. Drug entrapped free flowing nanoparticles of Rifampicin were obtained after optimization using 32 factorial design and characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size distribution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in vitro and stability studies. The PMMA nanoparticles had a small size (213 ± 0.72 nm), uniform size distribution. The effects of dependent variables drug-polymer ratio and surfactant concentration on particle size and encapsulation efficiency were studied. The drug and polymer were not interacting with each other. SEM studies revealed the spherical shape of nanoparticles and in vitro release studies showed sustained drug release. RIF-polymeric nanoparticles drug delivery system proved to be promising for anti-tubercular therapy.

Dual Users and Electronic Cigarette Only Users: Consumption and Characteristics

Authors: Alexander S. Lee ; Joy L. Hart ; Kandi L. Walker ; Rachel J. Keith ; S. Lee Ridner
Pages: 111-116
Background: E-cigarette use has grown in popularity, especially as the devices have been touted as smoking cessation tools. In an exploratory study, we sought to compare dual users (i.e., users of both combustible tobacco and e-cigarettes) to e-cigarette only users. Methods: The Electronic Cigarette Opinion Survey (ECOS) was employed to assess users’ (n=78) perceptions and consumption of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes. Quantity of e-juice and nicotine used and time of initial nicotine exposure were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between e-cigarette use behaviors and being an e-cigarette only user compared to a dual user. Results: Compared to dual users, e-cigarette only users consumed higher levels of nicotine in e-juice (p=0.0009) and more nicotine per month (p=0.03). For dual users, the time of first nicotine exposure after waking was significantly earlier than for e-cigarette only users (mean= 9.6 minutes (SD= 8.0) and mean= 26.6 minutes (SD= 22.0), respectively; p=0.0056). Results from the regression models suggest the amount of e-juice consumed and time of first nicotine exposure after waking are significantly associated with being an e-cigarette only user. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the perceptions and use patterns of e-cigarette only users compared to dual users.  As regulation of e-cigarettes is considered, understanding the impact of e-cigarettes and dual use is imperative. Despite frequent marketing claims that e-cigarettes are completely safe, health campaigns need to convey emerging and mixed findings on safety as well as current scientific uncertainty to the public.

Relationship Between Work Stress, Workload, and Quality of Life Among Rehabilitation Professionals

Authors: Yu-Li Lan ; Yi-Ching Lin ; Yu-Hua Yan ; Yu-Ping Tang
Pages: 105-110
Background: This study explored the relationship between work stress, workload, and quality of life (QOL) among rehabilitation professionals. Methods: This study applied a cross-sectional design. A questionnaire was distributed to rehabilitation professionals—comprising physicians in the rehabilitation department, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech-language pathologists, and audiologists—working in teaching hospitals. A total of 152 valid responses were collected, yielding a valid response rate of 93.8%. Results: For female respondents, factors affecting the QOL were educational level, type of professional license, length of service, average leisure hours per week, expense on leisure per week, work stress, and workload (all p < .01). For male respondents, no factor reached statistical significance (p > .001). Conclusion: This study provides the following suggestions to hospital administrators: establishing a stress-relief helpline, evaluating employees’ workload, regularly arranging stress management training courses, implementing employee health promotion programs, and promoting proactive strategies to improve employee physical and mental health.

Current Antibiotic Resistance Trends of Uropathogens from Outpatients in a Nigerian Urban Health Care Facility

Authors: Ifeanyi A. Onwuezobe ; Ubong E. Etang
Pages: 99-104
Background: The widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in emergence of community-acquired antibiotic resistance among uropathogens in outpatient’s population. This constitutes an impediment in the management of urinary tract infection (UTI) in both community and hospital settings. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current antibiotic resistance trends, extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production and plasmid profile of uropathogens from outpatients. Methods: A total of 370 mid-stream urine samples were collected and cultured by standard methods. Isolated uropathogens were identified using appropriate biochemical methods. The modified Kirby Bauer disk method was used for antibiotic susceptibility test. The ESBL-producing uropathogens were identified and their plasmid DNA extraction and curing were carried out by standard methods. Results: About 35.7% and 32.7% of uropathogens were multi-drug resistant and ESBL-producing respectively. There was higher prevalence of ESBL-production among isolates from female patients (62.5%) when compared to that from male patients (37.5%). The isolated uropathogens were most resistant to Cefotaxime, and most sensitive to Imipenem. Resistance to antibiotics by ESBL-producing uropathogens was found to be plasmid-mediated. Conclusion: Community acquired Uropathogens from outpatients were multidrug resistant due to ESBL production localized on plasmids, a probable cause of treatment failures experienced in Uyo.

Jordanian Patients Knowledge Regarding Sexual Health Following Coronary Artery Diseases

Authors: Izzeddin A. Abu Bdair ; Lubna Abushaikha
Pages: 90-98
Background: Sexual health is one aspect of daily life that becomes affected after an individual suffers from coronary artery diseases. Sexual health assessment is an important aspect in assessing general health of patients with coronary artery diseases. Patients often express their concern about sexual well-being after coronary artery diseases but they rarely receive sexual health-related information. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess Jordanian patients with coronary artery diseases toward sexual health and resuming sexual health activities. Methods: A descriptive, correlational and longitudinal design was used. A convenience sample of 90 patients with coronary artery diseases was enrolled. The study was conducted at one university-affiliated hospital and one public hospital in Amman. Patients’ knowledge about sexual health was assessed using Sex after Myocardial Infarction Knowledge Test- Cardiac version. Results: The majority of patients (65.6%) were diagnosed with MI, male (76.7%) and above 45 years (78.9%). Most patients (72.2%) had a CAD for five years or less. Patients acknowledged the importance of sexual health assessment but they rarely receive sexual health information. The results revealed that patients’ knowledge was limited regarding certain aspects of sexual health (M=13.74, SD= 3.26) at phase one and most patients (55.6%) had moderate knowledge. The results indicated that patients’ knowledge had significantly improved at second phase. Conclusions: Sexual health is an important concern for patients with coronary artery diseases that need to be addressed after recovery. Results of the study showed that sexual health remains an important issue for both patients with coronary artery disease and their health care providers. Continuing education for nurses and health education for patients regarding sexual health should be considered in health institutions.