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Volume 4 Number 7 July 2018

The Effects of Co-Administration of Azadirachta indica and Gongronema latifolium on the Liver of Plasmodium beighei Infected Swiss Albino Mice


Authors: Uwemedimo G. Udoh ; Aniekan I. Peter
Pages: 141-146
Abstract
The effects of co-administration of Azadirachta indica and Gongronema latifolium on the liver of Plasmodium beighei infected Swiss albino mice was evaluated. Thirty mice divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each were used for this study. Healthy control group was not infected with. Other group was infected by intraperitoneal injection of P. beighei. Once parasitaemia was confirmed, treatment groups were assigned; Group A received distilled water at 10ml/kg body weight. Group B was not given any extracts. Groups C was given G.latifolium extract at 500mg/kg body weight. Groups D was given A. indica extract at 500 mg/kg body weight. Group E received both extracts at 500 mg/kg each.  Group F received Artemether at 1.6mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. The extracts were administered orally for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed after blood was obtained for serum liver enzymes estimation. The liver were processed for histological study using H and E. Histology of the liver showed sinusoidal congestion and hepatocyte necrosis in the diseased control and steatosis, loss of normal sinusoidal architecture, necrosis of hepatocytes and portal tract inflammation in the A. indica only group. The groups administered G. latifolium, both singly and in combination with A. indica had normal liver histology. The liver enzyme ALT was significantly (p<0.05) raised in A. indica treated group while it was normal in the G. latifolium groups. It will thus appear that G. latifolium ameliorated the hepatotoxicity of A. indica in Plasmodium beighei infected mice.



Antibiotic Self-Medication Among Young Adults in Kosovo


Authors: Zana Shabani ; Kerry J. Redican
Pages: 134-140
Abstract
A survey was developed and distributed to adult pharmacy customers in Pristina, Kosovo to explore the extent and reasons for self-medication and knowledge regarding antibiotic use.  The survey was distributed via-email to a convenience sample of pharmacy customers (n=693).  Four hundred and nineteen (n=419, 63.2% response rate) completed surveys were returned.  Most respondents (56%, n=235) were between 25-45 years old, almost 80% (79.62%, n=332) held a university degree, 59.43% were females, and 12.05% (n=50) were unemployed.   Sore throats (44.47%, n=185) were the most common reason for self-medicating with antibiotics followed by other – unspecified (28.61%, n=119), cough (7.21%, n=30) and pain (6.49%, n=27).  Amoxicillin was the most frequently self-administered antibiotic (41.1%, n=175).  It was concluded that self-medication with antibiotics in this sample is a problem and controlling antibiotic use is an important public health effort.