International Journal of Healthcare and Medical Sciences

Online ISSN: 2414-2999
Print ISSN: 2415-5233

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)


Volume 7 Number 3 July 2021

Comprehensive Review on Ficus Deltoidea Effervescent Mouthwash Formulation in Treating Oral Pathogens

Authors: Mehul Chitalia ; Dr Senthil Adimoolam ; Boey Hong Jun ; Lee Ee Cheng
Pages: 63-75
Ficus deltoidea or its well-known local name Mas Cotek belongs to the family of  Moracaeae. This native plant is commonly found in Malaysia, other tropical and subtropical countries. Oral periodontal disease is an alarming disease and the utilization of herbal plants in treating oral pathogens has raised attention and concern. Therefore the main objective of this study was to review the effectiveness of effervescent mouthwash formulation of the FDL on treating oral pathogens. Plaque accumulation and oral microorganisms are the main predisposing factors to oral periodontal diseases. Herbal mouthwash has been of particular interest these days to treat oral pathogens. Different effervescent agents such as citric acid, tartaric acid, and sodium bicarbonate were used in formulating effervescent mouthwash by different methods with varying concentrations. FDL leaves have claimed to possess different properties such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties which are helpful in treating many diseases. Post compression parameters such as effervescent time, moisture content, and in vitro antibacterial test were reviewed in this study. FDL has shown a strong correlation to the presence of high content of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponin, tannins, and triterpenoids. In conclusion, the type of preparation choosen is by using wet granulation method and the suitable ratio is 2:1.

Awareness and Knowledge of Mothers Regarding Home Management of Diarrheal Disease for Children Less Than Five

Authors: Eiman Ahmed Saad Mohmed ; Mohammed AbdallaIbrahim Abdalla
Pages: 58-62
Background: Diarrhea is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age. Adequate rehydration therapy is the most important aspect of management. Home-based Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) prevents morbidity and mortality. In this study, our objective was to assess the awareness and knowledge of mothers regarding home management of the diarrheal disease for children less than five years in Gaffer Ibnauf specialized children’s hospital. Methods: This study was descriptive cross-sectional in gaffer ibnauf specialized children hospital. A questionnaire was provided to all the mothers admitted by children under five. in gastroenteritis word. Results: A total of 50 mothers60% of mothers have an aware understanding of the term childhood diarrhea. 52% of mothers were aware of signs of diarrhea. 48.0% of mothers aware of the severe symptoms noticed in children with diarrhea. 40.0% of mothers identify the mode of diarrhea spread, and more than halve the mothers had poor knowledge. 52.0% of mothers are aware of the danger of diarrhea. 42.0% of respondents were aware that dehydration is associated with acute loss of water and salt from the body. 52.0% of responders had good knowledge about the management of diarrhea. 64.0% of the respondents were aware of the composition of oral rehydration therapy. 48.0% of the respondents had knowledge of how to avoid some diets (like fat and fiber) in order to prevent diarrhea. Conclusions:- The study concluded that mothers had good knowledge about definition,  signs, symptoms, main danger of diarrhea, the composition of ORT, importance of fluid and breastfeed continuation, and they had poor knowledge about the diet control types of diarrheal diseases and mode of its transmission.

Dental Implants in the Geriatric Population: Challenges in Developing Economies

Authors: Agboghoroma Okeoghenemaro Gloria ; Ameh Governor G. ; Enabulele Joan Emien
Pages: 53-57
Aging is a natural process that results in biological and physiological changes in the body. geriatric dental patients pose unique challenges that are not routinely seen in younger patients. The difference in bone size, density, shape, and quality present unique opportunities for clinicians to consider when planning for implant replacement therapies in geriatric patients. Despite these setbacks, the popularity of implants in dentistry has risen in recent times and more clinicians and patients see the potentials for oral rehabilitation among the geriatric population. This article attempts to appraise the challenges associated with the provision of dental Implants to the older age group, particularly in developing economies. The challenges of implant treatment in developing countries remain enormous but not insurmountable. As implant treatment for a dental prosthesis in developing countries gains popularity amongst geriatric patients, clinicians must balance this treatment choice on the overall desire and health of the patient, while evaluating his clinical and laboratory competence. Decision on whether or not to place an implant in the mouth of a geriatric patient should not be made on the background of age but on a cocktail of economic, local, and systemic factors.

Weight and Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Authors: Demetria Pizano ; Rebecca Hedrick ; Steven Clevenger ; Samantha Cohen ; Waguih William IsHak
Pages: 41-52
Objective: This systematic review aims to examine the spectrum of research studies including cross-cultural and international studies that have focused on weight and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. Methods: Following the PRISMA guidelines, studies published in the past 25 years from 1995 until 2020 that pertain to weight and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents were identified through the use of Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and PsycInfo databases. Two authors independently conducted a focused analysis and reached a final consensus on which studies to include using specific selection criteria followed by a quality check of the studies, resulting in the final selection of 25 studies. Results: The selected studies particularized the level of impaired quality of life among normal-weight, overweight and obese children and adolescents, and distinctly found that higher participant weight was correlated with a lower HRQoL score. Conclusion: Studies showed a significant negative correlation between weight and HRQoL. Multiple types of prevention and treatment programs are critically needed to provide resources to improve quality of life in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

Prevalence of Malaria Infections Among Patients in Gimbie Adventist Hospital Western Wollega, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Authors: Adamu Mengistu ; Beyene Dobo ; Solomon Sorsa
Pages: 31-40
Malaria is a disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. The five species of parasite in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P.ovale, and P. knowlesi. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young African children. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of malaria infection and associated factors among patients attending Gimbie Adventist Hospital in West Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia. First, a retrospective study was carried out for the past ten years (2006-2016) to study the prevalence of malaria in the study area. Second, malaria suspected patients-based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to June, 2017. A random sampling technique was carried out to select representative study participants among the patient’s members. Structured questionnaires (n=130) and blood sample examinations were used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 20 version. The prevalence of malaria in males was 71(65.7%) and in females were 37(34.3%). The greatest number of malaria cases tested in the age group of 16-30 years old was 52(48.1%). Among 384 Malaria suspected patients who were recruited and ascertained for parasitaemia from the blood sample test, 108 patients were malaria positive. The overall prevalence of malaria infection was 28.1%, of which 58 (53.7%) were positive for P. falciparum and 34 (31.5%) for P. vivax and the remaining 16(14.8%) were mixed (P. falciparum + P. vivax). The Major Plasmodium species identified in this study was P. falciparum (53.7%).  Out of the screened patients, 69.2% responded to sleep under the ITNs the previous night. The coverage of IRs was observed to be 12.3% during the study period. The higher prevalence of malaria could be the result of several factors as explained in this study. Therefore, effective malaria control measures should be implemented in order to reduce the prevalence of malaria infection among patients.

Charge Syndrome Hallmarked with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Patent Ductus Arteriosus; 20 Years Post-Repairing; An Extreme Combination

Authors: Yasser Mohammed Hassanain Elsayed
Pages: 26-30
Rationale: CHARGE syndrome or Hall-Hittner syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder, in which the name is derived from the abbreviation epitomizing its six clinical criteria: ocular coloboma, cardiac defects, choanal atresia, growth or developmental retardation, genital hypoplasia, and ear anomalies or deafness. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is the most frequent pattern of ventricular pre-excitation. Patent ductus arteriosus is one of the most frequent congenital heart diseases due to failure of closure of the ductus arteriosus within 72 hours of birth. CHARGE syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and patent ductus arteriosus are so difficult to be present in a single entity.  Patient concerns: A young female girl patient presented to the physician’s outpatient clinic with acute confusion status with a past repaired patent ductus arteriosus. Diagnosis: CHARGE syndrome hallmarked with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and patent ductus arteriosus; 20 years post-repairing. Interventions: Plain chest x-ray, electrocardiography, oxygenation, and echocardiography. Outcomes: A dramatic clinical improvement post-oxygenation had happened. Lessons: CHARGE syndrome with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and repaired patent ductus arteriosus is an extreme combination. The existence of infantile electrocardiographic Tee-Pee sign of hypocalcemia and adult low ionized calcium with CHARGE syndrome is highly suggestive of associated DiGeorge phenotype syndrome. An absence of tachycardia post- repairing of patent ductus arteriosus from 11 mo until the 20th-year-old is a good prognostic sign. The presence of an infantile T-wave alternance will strengthen both the risk of serious arrhythmia and the efficacy of patent ductus arteriosus repairing.