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International Journal of Healthcare and Medical Sciences

Online ISSN: 2414-2999
Print ISSN: 2415-5233

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)


Volume 8 Number 3 September 2022

A Comprehensive Review on Lassa Fever in Africa:  Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Prevention and Control

Authors: Mahendra Pal ; Negesa Gedefa Areda ; Adugna Girma Lema
Pages: 35-43
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijhms.83.35.43
Lassa fever is a highly prevalent viral zoonosis that affects two to three million people in West Africa. This is a rodent-borne disease, which has serious consequences on the population and hospital staff in endemic areas. Lassa fever is a public health concern inflicting severe morbidity and important mortality (Case rate (CFR) ≥ 50%), particularly in epidemic cases. The disease has emerged as one of the most prevalent and debilitating viral hemorrhagic fevers and is endemic in the West Africa region. The control and prevention of the regular outbreak of the disease have become a herculean task in the affected; there is inadequate healthcare facility (including laboratory/diagnostic and care centers), poor socioeconomic environment, lack of awareness among the populace, and presence of favorable ecologic niche for the survival and propagation of the natural host and reservoir mouse (Mastomys natalensis) of Lassa virus. It is mainly transmitted by contact with excretions and secretions of infected rats via foods and water as well as exposure to other contaminated items. It is an enveloped, single-stranded (SS) segmented RNA virus with the ability to replicate very rapidly. The virus infects almost every tissue in the human body resulting in multisystem dysfunction. The incubation period is generally between 6 to 21 days resulting in 3 stages of clinical manifestation viz: Acute phase characterized by flu-like, non-specific illness; hemorrhagic phase accompanied with gastrointestinal symptoms and cardiovascular/neurologic complications. Laboratory help is required in order to make an unequivocal diagnosis of the disease. Early diagnosis and prompt therapy are crucial to saving the life of the patient. Currently, there is no clinically certified Lassa fever vaccine thus complicating preventive, and control measures.

Potential Effects of Wild Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L.) Seed Extract Intervention on Oxidative Stress Induced by Busulfan Drug in Different Organs of Rats

Authors: Nahed S. Abd Elalal ; Samah A. Elsemelawy ; Yousif A. Elhassaneen
Pages: 19-34
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijhms.83.19.34
Chemotherapeutic agent, busulfan, induce oxidative stress as a mechanism to kill cancer cells, however, it may also cause oxidative stress in non-target tissues and thereby lead to normal tissue injury. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) has been used for centuries as a herbal drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential effects of wild Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract (SMSEE) intervention on oxidative stress induced by busulfan drug in different organs of Rats. For the study 42 rats were prepared and fed with special ration, then they were divided to 7 groups with 6 rats in each group: group 1, Normal control: healthy rats without intervention; group  2.control SMSEE, 400 mg/kg/day SMSEE; group 3, positive control group received 20 mg/kg/day busulfan, group 4,  treated group received 20 mg/kg/day busulfan + 200 mg/kg/day SMSEE; group 5, treated group  received 20 mg/kg/day busulfan+ 400 mg/kg/day SMSEE; group 6, treated group  received 20 mg/kg/day busulfan + 600 mg/kg/day SMSEE; group 7, treated group  received 20 mg/kg/day busulfan + 800 mg/kg/day SMSEE. The amount of oxidative stress parameters (ROS and MDA), glutathione fractions (GSH and GSSG), and antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, SOD and CAT) in the different tissue extracts (liver, kidneys, heart, spleen, pancreas and testes) were measured. The results of this study showed that after busulfan treatment the levels of ROS and MDA were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, SOD and CAT were decreased in all studied organs. Treatment of busulfan administration rats with SMSEE leads to the opposite direction by different rates.  In conclusion, the use of busulfan in rats administration induce oxidative stress in different organs and SMSEE had an preventive role through decreasing the ROS and the lipid peroxidation, and improvement the oxidative defense system.  These results provide a basis for the use of Silybum marianum extracts as promising tools in the future for many important nutritional and therapeutic applications.

Prevalence of Anemia among Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus, Alkhair Medical Center, Wad Medani, Gezira State, Sudan (2020)

Authors: Khalid Abdelsamea Mohamedahmed ; Rumisa Mobashar Mohammed ; Albadawi Abdebagi Talha
Pages: 13-18
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijhms.83.13.18
Background: Anemia is one of the common complications of diabetes mellitus, and their risk in diabetic patients is estimated to be 2 – 3 times higher than that of patients without diabetes. Therefore, having a major impact on the overall health and survival of diabetes patients. Globally, the prevalence of concurrent anemia and diabetes mellitus ranges from 14 – 45% in various ethnic populations worldwide. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia among type II diabetic patients. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional laboratory-based study conducted in Alkhair Medical Center, Wad Medani, Gezira State, Sudan during March to December 2020 among 100 type II diabetic patients ((32 males and 68 females) their ages ranged between 30 and 90 years with mean (52.26 ± 13.58 years). Three ml of venous blood samples were collected from all participants in K3EDTA containers. A thin blood film was prepared and stained immediately. The RBCs parameters were performed using Sysmex XP-300 Automated Hematology Analyzer. SPSS computer program (v 25.0) was used for data analysis. Results: The study results showed that the prevalence of anemia among patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were 7 (7 %). 6 (85.7 %) patients had mild anemia, and one (14.3 %) had moderate anemia according to clinical degree of anemia based on hemoglobin level. 4 (57.14 %) patients had microcytic hypochromic anemia, and 2 (28.57 %) patients had normocytic normochromic anemia and one (14.29 %) patients had macrocytic anemia based on RBCs indices and morphology. The prevalence of anemia is more in female (7.35 %) than male (6.25 %). Conclusion: The study concluded that anemia among patients with type II Diabetes Mellitus was 7 %, mostly mild and microcytic hypochromic anemia; so improve their nutrition status among diabetic patients may help in reducing the anima during diabetes.