Journal of Agriculture and Crops
Online ISSN: 2412-6381
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 7 Number 1 January 2021
Evaluation of Seed Production and Quality Performance of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Kulumsa in Arsi Zone South East Ethiopia
Authors: Nimona Fufa ; Fekadu Gebretensay ; Dasta Tsagaye ; Demis Fikre ; Gizaw Wegayehu ; Awoke Ali
Field experiment involving five improved onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties and carried out at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center during the 2018 to 2019 cropping seasons under irrigated condition to identify the best performing variety for seed production to the target areas of Arsi Zone. The onion varieties included in the field experiment were (Nafis, Robaf, Nasic Red, Bombe Red, and Adama Red). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Phenological and growth parameters, seed yield, and yield components were studied. The result showed that Variety had a significant effect on most phonological and growth attributes as well as on yield attributes. The number of days to flowering and vigorously were significantly affected by variety; while plant height, days to boolting and branch number was not significantly influenced by variety. Flower stalks height and diameter, number of umbel per plant, and umbel diameter also significantly affected by variety. Seed yield per umbel and mean seed yield per hectare also showed a significance difference among varieties. The highest seed yield per hectare (1415.89 kg/ha) was recorded from Adama Red and followed by Nafis variety, whereas Nasic rerd, Bombe red and Robaf show no significance difference among each other, Therefore, it can be concluded that use of the improved onion varieties such as Adama red and Nafis is advisable and could be appropriate for onion seed production in the test area even though further testing is required to put the recommendation on a strong basis.
Rubber Tree Cultivation and Improvement in Malaysia: Anatomical and Morphological Studies on Hevea brasiliensis and Hevea camargoana
Authors: Ong Chin Wei ; Shamsul Bahri Abd Razak
Rubber trees are among the important cultivated crops in Malaysia, and have contributed to the country’s overall economic growth since the 1950s. However, the existing anatomical and morphological studies are relatively insufficient. Currently, Hevea brasiliensis has been cultivated and planted commonly as a commercial planting clone, while Hevea camargoana remains to be a non-cultivated and underutilized rubber species. For many years, there only exists little information both in private plantations and government agencies that have carried out anatomical and morphological assessments on these underutilized species. There is little information about the characteristics of H.camargoana, thus raising the issue among plant breeders on how to best use this underutilized rubber species. This study attempts to investigate the taxonomic values and characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis and Hevea camargoana through anatomical and morphological studies.
Application of Distributed Electricity Generation Systems in Agricultural Greenhouses
Authors: John Vourdoubas
Use of distributed electricity generation systems is currently increasing due to their economic and environmental benefits. Agricultural greenhouses require heat and electricity for covering their energy needs while their annual energy requirements vary significantly. Aim of the current work is the investigation of applying various distributed electricity generation systems in greenhouses. A review of different distributed generation systems currently used in various sectors as well as in greenhouses has been implemented. Various technologies are examined utilizing either renewable energies or fossil fuels in very efficient energy systems. Most of them are mature and cost-effective having lower environmental impacts compared with traditional centralized electricity generation technologies. Their use in greenhouses results in many benefits including the creation of an additional income for the farmer, reduction of carbon emissions into the atmosphere and increasing stability of the electric grid. It is suggested that distributed electricity generation systems should be used more in greenhouses when the necessary conditions are favorable.
Sorghum Seed Fungal Community and Their Association with Grain Mold Severity, Seed Weight, and Germination Rate
Authors: Louis K. Prom ; Thomas Isakeit ; Hugo Cuevas ; Saradha R. Erattaimuthu ; Roxanne Jacobsen
Grain mold, considered the most important disease of sorghum, is associated with several fungal genera. The disease reduces both yield and quality. In this study, over 300 sorghum seed samples collected from Texas, Florida, and Georgia were evaluated for grain mold severity, seed weight, germination rate, and seed fungal community. Grain mold severity of the seed samples, except for those collected from Cameron, Texas, were rated 3 or higher, indicating that these sorghum lines were moderately susceptible under naturally-infected field conditions during the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons. Seed weight across surveyed locations ranged from 1.1 g to 4.0g for samples collected in Texas during the same period. Percent germination rates for samples collected in Texas ranged from 59.6% to 86.7%. Sorghum samples collected from Florida and Georgia exhibited moderately susceptible response to grain mold infection. Mean seed weight was 1.9 g for samples collected from Florida, while in Georgia, mean seed weight was 2.3 g. Germination rate was low for samples collected from Florida and Georgia. Mycological analysis of sorghum seed samples collected from farmers’ fields in Central and South Texas during the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons showed Alternaria species as the most frequently isolated fungal genus, accounting for 40% and 42 % in 2016 and 2017, followed by Fusarium incarnatum, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, & F. semitectum Complex. In Florida and Georgia, Fusarium incarnatum, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, & F. semitectum Complex was the most frequently recovered fungal species, accounting for 77% and 72% of the total. genera/species isolated from seed samples. Other fungal species, including Curvularia lunata, Bipolaris sp., Colletotrichum sublineola, F. verticillioides, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus, F. thapsinum, F. oxysporum, F. sporotrichioides, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and Aspergillus niger were also isolated from sorghum seeds in various frequencies. In conclusion, the presence of large number of fungal genera associated with grain deterioration and their effect on other traits, makes management of this disease complex challenging. To identify grain mold resistant sources in a region, using the most dominant species in that region to screen the sorghum germplasm is recommended.
Assessment of National Performance Trials of Potatoes in Mid-Altitude Regions of Kenya
Authors: Jane Muthoni ; Hussein Shimelis ; Mbiri D. G. ; Schulte-Geldermann Elmar
Potato is the second most important food crop in Kenya after maize. It is a valuable cash and food crop mainly grown by small-scale farmers. Potato is cultivated mainly under rainfed production conditions at altitudes between 1500 and 3000 metre above sea level (masl). Consequently, National Performance Trials (NPTs) test sites are located in these highlands. Recently, potato production has spread to the mid-highlands (1200-1500masl) mostly due to high food demand occasioned by population increase, and migration of small scale farmers from the densely populated highlands to the more spacious midlands. Consequently, there is increased need to breed potato varieties that can grow profitably in the warmer mid-altitudes. This development called for identification of new conventional NPT test sites located in the mid-altitudes. Six mid-altitude sites were identified and client-managed conventional NPTs carried out. Twenty six potato genotypes were evaluated for two seasons. First season crop was planted in 2016 while the second season crop was planted in 2017. There was a significant (p≤ 0.001) effect of genotypes, environments and genotype x environment interaction in the first season. Trans-Nzoia was the highest yielding site. All genotypes yielded between 10 and 25 ton/ha. In the second season, only environments showed significant (p≤ 0.001) effects. Again, Trans-Nzoia was the highest yielding site. Across the two seasons, Trans-Nzoia gave an average yield of 26.96 ton/ha followed by Kabete at 18. 21ton/ha. All the other four sites yielded less than 10 ton/ha. The high yields at Trans-Nzoia and Kabete could be due to higher altitudes in these two sites compared to the others. In order to develop potato varieties that can produce profitably in the warm mid-altitudes, breeding and early generation selections activities should be based in these areas.
Evaluation of Seedling Establishment Palatability and Acceptability Tests of Groundnut Seeds as Influenced by Levels of Whole Powder of Hyptis suaveolens L. Poit and Climatic Conditions
Authors: Oaya C. S. ; Omar K. B. ; Hammangabdo I.
The tests for the evaluation of seedling establishment, palatability and acceptability were carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Agricultural Technology and the Food Laboratory of the Department of Home and Rural Economics, Adamawa State College of Agriculture, Ganye, Adamawa State. The experimental designs used were Randomized Complete Block Design and the Completely Randomized Design. Some of the parameters measured were percentage seedling establishment, palatability, and acceptability tests. The highest mean percentage seedling establishment was observed in 12.00g levels of H. suaveolens whole powder treated shelled groundnut seeds (97.67, 97.00, and 94.00) at the three periods of storage. Percentage seedling establishment decreased with a decrease in levels of H. suaveolens whole powder. One of the major constraints to the use of plant materials as an alternative to synthetic insecticides is the issue of standardization in dosage of application. This work has suggested that, if groundnut seeds are to be used for sowing, they should be stored with a 12.00g level of H. suaveolens whole powder for every 300.00g for three months. However, if they are to be used for consumption, they could be stored with a 6.00g level of H. suaveolens whole powder for every 300.00g for at most three months. There was no significant difference between treated and untreated shelled groundnut seeds at the three periods of storage on the acceptability and palatability score of cooked groundnut at all dosages of application. All treatments were within the acceptable score rates even though the two rates of the synthetic insecticides, actellic dust were at the lowest acceptable score rate. The finding also showed that acceptability and palatability decreased with an increase in dosage of application. The periods of storage also had a significant impact on the mean percentage seedling establishment. It was observed that there was a higher percentage of seedling establishment when shelled groundnut seeds were stored from November- January. At this period of the year, the temperature and humidity are usually low and this might have necessitated the high state of inactivity and low performance of the bruchids compared to other periods of storage within the year.