Journal of Agriculture and Crops
Online ISSN: 2412-6381
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 8 Number 2 April 2022
Effects of Priming Treatments on Germination Indices of Soybean Cultivars Under Osmotic Stress
Authors: Ali Thaeer Hammid ; Esmat Khaleqsafat ; Mohammed Y. Jaber ; Shaymaa Abed Hussein ; Thulfeqar Ahmed Hamza
This study aimed to investigate the effects of priming treatments on germination indices of soybean cultivars under osmotic stress in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of treatments in a botany laboratory located in Kordestan Province, Sanandaj, Iran. Experimental treatments included three treatments of priming (control and gibberellin at a concentration of 0.04%), cultivar (Clark and Hobbit), and osmotic stress (control and -1.5MPa) in three replications. The standard germination test was performed according to the guidelines presented by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) and some germination indices, including germination percentage, germination rate, germination uniformity, and mean germination time up to 10% germination (D10), were calculated at the end of the experiment using German program. In addition, some growth indices and enzymatic activities were also evaluated in this study. Results of the analysis of variance indicated that the triple interaction of A×B×C had significant effects on all germination indices and the lowest coefficient of variation (equal to 7.55) was obtained for germination rate while its highest value (equal to 17.22) was calculated for germination uniformity index. Concerning the effects of priming treatment, it was observed that the highest values for indices of germination percentage and germination rate (with averages of 48% and 0.12, respectively) were obtained under the application of gibberellin. In other words, gibberellin treatment led to increases equal to 15.58 and 90.44% for germination percentage and germination rate indices compared to the control treatment, respectively. In addition, increasing osmotic stress levels had a significant inverse relationship with germination indices so that the application of -1.5 MPa osmotic stress significantly Decreased the germination percentage and germination rate of both Clark and Hobbit cultivars. In general, it was concluded that the application of gibberellin mitigated adverse effects of osmotic stress of -1.5 MPa and resulted in an increasing percentage and rate of germination under stressful conditions.
Econometric Analysis of Fluted Pumpkin Production in Nigeria; Empirical In-Depth Analysis
Authors: Osuji E. E. ; Munonye J. O. ; Olaolu M. O. et al.
A study was carried out to investigate the econometric analysis of fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis production in South East, Nigeria. For this study, multi-stage random sampling was used to select 222 fluted pumpkin farmers using structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. It was observed in the study that the majority of the fluted pumpkin growers were females, married, relatively educated, and within productive age. A high productivity ratio was recorded by 39% of the fluted pumpkin growers due to exposure to agricultural forums and extension visits. Productivity differences across the state varied significantly with higher productivity estimates. Overall total factor productivity (TFP) and partial factor productivity (PFP) values were 11.33 and 111.2. The Majority, 52.2% of the fluted pumpkin farmers disposed of their produce in the local market due to proximity. The profit function analysis result gave N145,309.1, indicating economic viability and profitability of fluted pumpkin. Age, gender, household size, farm size, education, and farming experience influenced both the net returns and land productivity of the fluted pumpkin farmers. Farmers should be encouraged to embrace fluted pumpkin cultivation due to its economic viability, profitability, productivity, and sustainability. Government should also assist in subsidizing and providing the needed inputs to encourage fluted pumpkin growers and enhance production as well.
The Intensity of Agriculture in the Covid-19 from Indonesia – A Systematic Literature Review
Authors: Yohanes Kuleh ; Zainal Ilmi ; M. Amin Kadafi
The agricultural sector will be surely crushed if there is no acute attention from the government in an agrarian country. As a reflection, the importance of the agricultural sector, which produces foodstuffs in the food security agenda in a difficult situation. The objectivity of this article is to present the existence of the agricultural sector and strategic aspects to support the agricultural sector in Indonesia so that it can cope with the Covid-19 pandemic. To clarify the presentation, we use the SLR method, which will determine the extent of the fate of the agricultural sector with comparisons from previous studies relevant to this. The results of the review prove that the agricultural sector in Indonesia, especially in food, is almost 70% of smallholder agriculture. With this people’s farming model, we need to conclude that we will maintain as long the food reserves in the community as the farmers keep planting. Because of this, the things that need to be done are to provide stimulus to farmers and guarantee the purchase of the products or commodities produced. In certain cases in several regions, the price of agricultural commodities declines and demand is low because thousands of restaurants and restaurants have closed, and reducing their sales capacity.
Life-history Parameters of Shield-Head Catfish Synodontis Schall (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) in the Nile River, Egypt
Authors: Sahar Fahmy Mehanna
Age and growth, mortality, and exploitation level of the shield-head catfish Synodontis schall inhabiting River Nile, Egypt are studied to evaluate its fishery status and proposed some reference points for its sustainability. A total number of 805 specimens comprising of 306 males and 499 females with the size range of 16.7 - 37.8 cm TL (mean = 26.71 ± 3.58) were investigated. The weight of specimens ranged from 60.0 to 650 g (mean = 194.88 ± 26.58). Statistically, there is no difference between males and females in the longevity and population parameters so all parameters were estimated for sexes combined. The maximum life span of this species was 4 years based on the pectoral fin spine sections. Asymptotic total length (L∞) was 42.25 cm, growth coefficient (K) was 0.42 yr-1, and theoretical age at zero-length (t0) was -0.36 yr, while the growth performance index (Ø’) was 2.87. The instantaneous total, natural, and fishing mortality coefficients were 1.23, 0.54, and 0.69 yr-1, respectively. The Exploitation rate (E) was 0.56. The body length at first sexual maturity (Lm) and mean selection length (Lc) were estimated at 24.1 and 23.6 cm, respectively. There is selective fishing mortality towards smaller fish sizes reflecting the adverse impact of fishing effort. Therefore, for management purposes, it is recommended to increase the length at first capture to maintain sufficient spawning biomass for recruitment and monitoring the exploitation level to control the fishing effort.
DNA-barcoding, SCoT and SRAP Based Somaclonal Variation in Micropropagated Withania somnifera Plantlets
Authors: Ismail A. Ismail ; Bandar S. Aljuaid ; El Dessoky S. Dessoky ; Attia O. Attia
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is one of the recognized plant species that considered of most traditional natural supplements. Tissue culture is an efficient method as fast and affordable in plant propagation. Few studies have discussed the genetic impact of such method on ashwagandha plant. The aim of this research was to identify the genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets and to assess the impact of in vitro-propagation on somaclonal variability in ashwagandha using start codon-targeted (SCoT), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and DNA-barcoding assays. SCoT marker assay produced a total number of 132 bands with an average of 11 bands per primer, where scorable PCR fragments were generated from all primers. The phylogenetic tree constructed using SCoT binary data, revealed genetic variability among studied plant samples. SRAP primer combinations showed a total of 78 bands by an average of 11.1 bands / combination, in which all combinations produced scored PCR fragments. Over SRAP assay, one specific band was obtained that was present in different ashwagandha micropropagated plant samples compared to the control (mother plant). This PCR fragments were obtained using me1F/em1R primer combination (287 bp). The phylogenetic tree constructed using SRAP data was successful to differentiate between micro-propagated plants and the control. The DNA- barcoding analysis using chloroplast gene RNA polymerasel (rpoCl) gene was used to detect the soma- clonal variation between control and one micro-propagated plant of ashwagandha. The phylogenetic tree constructed using DNA-barcoding sequences was successful to differentiate between the two samples, where control and micropropagated plantlets were grouped in two different groups. This study suggests the valuableness of using SRAP and DNA-barcoding in detecting soma-clonal variation among micropropagated plantlest of ashwagandha.
A Comparative Study between Major Crop (Potato) and Minor Crop (Onion) in Volcanic Highlands of Rwanda
Authors: Aristide Maniriho ; Edouard Musabanganji ; Philippe Lebailly
This paper aims to assess the competition between the priority (major) crops and the non-priority (minor) crops. Competition between crops is defined as the significant major differences between two crops in terms of production costs and their performance. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to a random sample of 226 small-scale crop producers including 94 onion producers and 132 potato producers. The T-test was conducted to state whether there is a significant difference of mean land sizes, mean crop yields, mean selling prices, and mean net farm incomes between the two groups of crop producers. Results showed non significant difference between the mean land size allocated to onion production and that allocated to potato farming. Results also indicate that onion yield is significantly greater than potato yield, onion selling price is significantly greater than that of potato, and the net income from onion production is far away greater than the income from potato production. It is remarkable that, in some circumstances, the authorities may prioritize and thus propose to farmers the crops that are less competitive considering their price, yield or income, if the current climatic conditions and economic settings are maintained in the medium or long term. Referring to these findings, policy efforts should encourages to the farmers to shift from potato farming to onion production, or simply inclusion of crop diversification via adopting onion may be the best option to maximize the potentials of the selected crops.
Study of the Diversity of Nematodes in Vegetable Crops in the Koulikoro Region (Mali)
Authors: Boubacar Kola Touré ; Souleymane Koné ; Binta Diallo ; Etienne Guindo ; Mohamed Maïga
The market gardening sector is confronted with numerous constraints which weaken and hinder its development. Among these constraints is the importance of plant-parasitic nematodes. For the sustainable management of these worms, a diagnostic evaluation was carried out in two permanent market gardening of Sébéninkoro (Kati) and Koulikoro town in order to determine their diversity. 54 soil samples of 500 g were taken from 3 plots, ie 27 samples per site. Analysis of these samples revealed the presence of 8 genera of nematodes. Among these nematodes, there are nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne very harmful to crops and Tylenchorhynchus. They are common and abundant throughout both sites.