Volume 1 Number 2 August 2015

Predicting of the Embryogenic Performances of 5 Upper Amazon Cocoa Parents Using the Discriminant Model of Wilks? Lambda

Authors: Auguste Emmanuel Issali ; Deless Fulgence Thiemele ; Franceline Doh ; Eug?ne Pac?me Kouakou Konan
Pages: 26-32
To predict the embryogenic performances of 5 upper amazon cocoa parents, the discriminant model of Wilks’ Lambda was used. Five parents, namely IMC67, P19A, Pa13, Pa121 and Pa150 were used. Staminodes and petals from these parents were extracted of flower buds then cultured in vitro onto 2 callogenesis media, namely PCG1 and PCG3. The Principal Component (PCA), Hierarchical Cluster HCA) and Factorial Discriminant Analyses (FDA) were performed. As for the PCA, a single, namely the number of callogenic explants, out of 5 measured variables, was dropped from the study. Two classes were identified from the PCA and HCA, then confirmed via the FDA. Clones P19A and Pa13 belonging to Class C2, displayed the highest embryogenic performances. Earlier study relying on multivariate analysis implying hybrids and these 5 cocoa parents revealed results approximately similar. The model predicting the embryogenic performances is spelt Z1 = -3.310 + 4.532*Ncalem. In oil palm, 2 models, the first one predicting the biomass production and the second one modeling the number of harvested shoots from somatic embryos were proposed. From model proposed here, the embryogenic performances of the best genotypes will vary from 1.3725 to 1.7402. Their discriminating score Z1 will oscillate from 2.910 to 4.576. This model will allow the predicting of membership class of a new observation from its values of the number of embryogenic explants.

Integrated Pest Management of Oryctes Monoceros, Rhynchophorus Phoenicis and Latoia Viridissima in Okomu Oil Palm Plantation, Nigeria

Authors: Aneni, T.I. ; Aisagbonhi, C.I. ; Ghansah, B. ; Adaigbe V.C. ; Irorere, M.O. ; Ohweho, G.
Pages: 15-25
Four, 5-litre Bucket traps containing 9mg/day Oryctes monoceros and Rhynchophorus phoenicis pheromone enhanced with pineapple, impregnated with 20ml of insecticide (Lambdacyhalothrin 2.5 EC) and a control bucket, (without pheromone, pineapple and insecticide) were set up in Okomu oil palm field. This treatment was also replicated, but altered using banana and cut pieces of palm trunks impregnated with same insecticide at the same rate. Oryctes monoceros pheromone traps similarly enhanced, caught 24 weevils while Rhynchophorus phoenicis pheromone traps caught 192 weevils. The trap without pheromone caught nothing. The insects trapped in the pheromone enhanced with pineapple treatment were significantly higher (P < 0.05), implying that this treatment was most effective in attracting O. monoceros. In the pheromone traps for R. phoenicis, all the treatments (P < 0.05) were effective in attracting R. phoenicis. Traps containing Pheromone + Pineapple + Insecticide + Water recorded highest number of weevils. Microbial Culture of dead Latoia viridissima identified major entomopathogens. This study confirms that pheromone trapping enhanced with fruit substrates are effective in protection of palms from damage caused by Oryctes monoceros and Rhynchophorus phoenicis in Nigeria. This is with least effects on non-target organisms, like useful beneficial insect pollinators and predators. The study identified Penicilium and Aspergillus sp, as major entomopathogens of latoia viridissima and could serve as control agents.