Journal of Agriculture and Crops
Online ISSN: 2412-6381
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 5 Number 9 September 2019
Effect of Organic Matter on Rice Nitrogen and Phosphorus Use Efficiency Under Calcareous Sodic Soil of Amibara District, Ethiopia
Authors: Bethel Nekir
Wastes produced from sugarcane industries are organic in nature, and it augmented the soil properties as well as improves crop yield and quality. In 2016 field experiment was conducted to investigate effect of filter cake and bagasse for nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency of upland rice grown on calcareous sodic soils of Amibara District. The result revealed that plant nutrient use efficiency indices agronomic efficiency, agrophysiological efficiency and apparent recovery efficiency of both nitrogen and phosphorus were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the application of filter cake and bagasse. The maximum nitrogen was recovered at 20 t ha-1 filter cake followed by combined application of 10 t ha-1 bagasse + 20 t ha-1 FC that gave 45.10 % from kg quantity of nitrogen uptake per unit of kg nutrient applied. But, the minimum nitrogen recovery efficiency was recorded at 20 t ha-1 bagasse + 20 t ha-1 filter cake. The Phosphorus apparent recovery efficiency ranged from 18.55- 32.91 %. The interaction of filter cake with bagasse also highly significantly (P < 0.01) affected rice grain yield. It can be encouraged to use these wastes with combination of inorganic chemical fertilizers under various cropping systems to enhance nutrient availability to plant under calcareous sodic soil.
Validity of Standard Four Attainment Scores in Predicting Agriculture Primary School Leaving Examination Results
Authors: Tapela Bulala ; Marea Mbisana
Establishing how current academic performance relates to future performance is key to helping educators fine tuning their assessment practice. At present high failure rate of Agriculture subject at Primary Leaving Examination (PSLE) has been of a great concern in Botswana. To determine the relationship between the standard four attainment scores and Primary Leaving Examination scores key in tracing the origin of failure observed at primary school leaving examination. The main focus of this study was to determine the validity of standard four attainment scores in predicting performance at standard seven Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). A quantitative study of correlational research design used secondary data scores obtained from Botswana Examination Council (BEC) to determine the correlation coefficient (r) between the two sets of scores. The study indicated that there was strong correlation, r=.8 at P= .00, between standard four attainment scores and PSLE scores, therefore the null hypothesis that states that there is no significant relationship between standard four attainment scores and PSLE scores was rejected. It was concluded that high failure rate obtaining at PSLE is related to poor foundation laid at lower levels. It is recommended that standard four attainment scores or performance should save as criterion for moving into upper primary (standard 5-7) and subsequently seating for PSLE.
Genetic Variability of Tef [Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Genotypes for Acid Soil Tolerance
Authors: Misgana Merga ; Hussein Mohammed ; Kebebew Assefa
Genetic variability studies provide basic information for breeders to develop different stress-tolerant varieties. In the present study, forty-nine Tef genotypes were evaluated under strong acid soil (pH 4.97) and lime treated (pH 5.90) soils in the lathouse at Assosa Agricultural Research Center in 2017 to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of various traits of tef genotypes in relation to soil acidity stress. The result indicated that there was high significant (p<0.01) differences among genotypes for all traits under both environments; except for shoot biomass in the combined data analysis. The two environments differed significantly in their effect on all traits except on plant height, panicle length, culm length, total and fertile tillers and number of primary branches, although environment contribution to total TSS was less than 10% in 13 of the 17 traits studied; its high contribution was to harvest index (42.6%) and grain yield pot-1 (32.5%). Big reduction due to soil acidity was recorded for yield of primary panicle (27.78%), grain yield pot-1 (33.85%) and harvest index (35.6%). A contribution of G was from 44.5% in harvest index to 90.5% in panicle length. The GxE interaction was also significant for all traits and it contributed more than 15% in 11 of the traits, indicating inconsistency of performance of genotypes under acidic and lime treated soils. PCV, GCV, and GAM were high (>20%) for fertile tillers per plant, panicle weight, yield of primary panicle, grain yield, and harvest index under both acidity levels and in the combined analysis. Heritability was high (>60%) for all traits except for shoot biomass in the combined analysis and lime treated soil. In general, there was wide genetic variability in the traits studied pointing to the possibility of improving the desired traits, including grain yield under both environments and over environments through the selection of elite genotypes.
A Review of Rain-Fed Wheat Production Constraints in Zambia
Authors: Batiseba Tembo
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important food crop in Zambia. It is the second most widely grown cereal crop after maize. However, its production and productivity during summer rain season is limited by socio-economic, abiotic and biotic constraints. The socio-economic factors limiting high wheat yield are high cost of inputs, lack of improved rain-fed wheat seed, lack of affordable loans, lack of access to market information and poor mechanization. The abiotic constraints on the other hand include drought, high temperature and aluminium toxicity. Biotic constraints affecting rain-fed wheat production include various weeds, pests (aphids, grass hoppers, pink stalk borers and termites) and diseases (powderly mildew, loose smut, leaf rust, fusarium head blight and spot blotch). Termites being the most serious and destructive pest of rain-fed wheat. Spot blotch is the most devastating and widely distributed among the diseases causing high yield losses of between 7-100% followed by fusarium head blight. This review paper, looks at the factors that limit the production and productivity of rain-fed wheat among small holder farmers in Zambia.
Quality of Snap Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) as influenced by N and P Fertilizer Rates at Jimma Southwestern Ethiopia
Authors: Abdela Negash ; Essubalew Getachew
Snap bean is a warm-season crop harvested for its immature seed pods. In Ethiopia its production increased from time to time for both export and local markets. A field experiment was conducted at the research field of JUCAVM, during 2017 cropping season using irrigation aiming to improve the quality of snap bean. Five levels of N (0, 41, 82, 123, and 164 kg ha−1) and four levels of P (0, 46, 92 and 138 kg ha−1) were laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications. N was applied in two equal splits (50% at planting and 50% during flowering) as Urea and the entire dose of P was applied basal as triple super phosphate at sowing. In this experiment pod length, pod diameter, pod protein concentration, pod straightness and marketable pod yield were measured as quality parameters. The results revealed that the main effects of N and P fertilizer rates showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for all quality parameters except for percentage of pod protein concentration and straightness of pod. Accordingly, the interaction effects of N and P were significant for percent of pod protein concentration and straightness of pod. Considering the major quality parameters and marketable pod yield applying 82 kg N ha −1 and 46 kg P2O5 ha−1 gave better result to increase the quality of snap bean in Jimma area. However, repeating the experiment for more seasons and similar location would help us draw sound conclusion and recommendations.