Journal of Agriculture and Crops
Online ISSN: 2412-6381
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 5 Number 10 October 2019
Analysis of Crop Production Constraints Through Participatory Rural Appraisal in Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia; Implications for Research and Development
Authors: Alemayehu Biri ; Kibret Ketema ; Solomon Ayele ; Dagnachew Lule
Participatory rural appraisals (PRA) were conducted in July 14 to 30, 2016 in AGP-II project target districts: Erar waldiya and Dire Teyara in Harari region of Ethiopia. PRA exercises were conducted using various PRA tools which included review of secondary data, focus group discussions, field observations (Transact walk) and pair-wise ranking. The tools were used to identify the biophysical and socio-economic constraints, opportunities and developments within the kebeles. Agricultural and animal productions are common in the surveyed Kebeles of the AGP-II target districts. Mixed farming is widely practiced in the kebeles of both districts. Staple food crops like maize and sorghum, and cash crops like vegetables and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) are commonly produced across all targets of AGP-II districts and also as region as well. Growing maize and sorghum in khat alleys is another cropping system practiced in both districts. The PRA work has also identified various categories of constraints to increasing crop production in the areas. The major bottlenecks include lack of improved crop varieties, low soil fertility, deforestation, moisture stress, disease and insect pests, and lack of awareness on soil fertility crop management. In most of the PRA Kebeles, it was found that continuous cropping, complete removal of crop residues from farm lands, soil erosion, deforestation, absence of fallowing, and inadequate soil fertility management practices are the major causes for low soil fertility and crop yields. In most cases, farmers apply Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), urea and farmyard manure to improve soil fertility and crop yield. However, very few farmers use integrated application of chemical fertilizers and farmyard manure for crop production. In addition, no scientifically formulated and recommended fertilizer rates are available for the specific soils and environments. Thus, due to the lack of scientifically recommended rates of fertilizers and high costs of mineral fertilizers, farmers often use smaller rates of mineral N and P fertilizers based on haphazard estimations.
Appraisal of Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in NCAM, Agricultural Engineering and NCAM Contribution
Authors: AbdulSalam Abdulwaheed ; Yusuf R. O.
The study was carried out at national centre for agricultural mechanization (ncam) ilorin kwara state, nigeria. The data on siwes students used was compiled for the period 2011 to 2015 of planning monitoring and evaluation department of the centre. Results from the study revealed that from the 2011 – 2015 the polytechnics recorded the highest of statistical mean of 44.60 and universities has 32.00 there is a very strong significant difference of 0.00 between the tertiary institutions (polytechnics, universities, college of education and federal training centre). The study also revealed that more of engineering students came for siwes program then science and social science with a very high significant difference of 0.01. No much significant difference between female and male students. The statistical mean for duration of 6 months and 1 year is the highest North central has the highest mean of 63.40 followed by south west is 11.20, north west has 1.80, north east has 1.60 while south south has none (0.00). Implying that only students from the tertiary institutions within the proximity of geo – political zone where ncam is sited came for their siwes programme at the national centre for agricultural mechanization.
Influence of Plant Spacing and Phosphorus Rates on Yield Related Traits and Yield of Faba Bean (Viacia faba L.) in Duna District Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia
Authors: Teklu Hailu ; Solomon Ayle
A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of plant spacing and phosphorus rates on yield related traits and yield of faba bean (Viacia faba L.) at Farmers Training Center, Duna District during 2015 summer cropping season. Three intra-rows spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm), three inter-rows spacing (30, 40 and 50 cm) and three phosphorus rates (0, 46 and 92 kg/ha) were tested. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and was replicated three times. Improved faba bean variety (Degaga) was ued as test crop. Phenological growth parameters yield and yield related data were collected and their ANOVA was analyzed using GenSta 5th edition and while treatment means were significantly different, they were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5% probability level. There was highly significant (P<0.01) effect of the highest rate of phosphorus (92 kg P2O5 ha-1) on days to flowering, days to maturity, leaf area index, effective nodules per plant, plant height , primary tillers plant-1, seeds pod-1, hundred seed weight, grain yield, above ground dry biomass and harvest index. Significantly lowest days to flowering (54.3 days) after emergence and highest plant height (105.63 cm), leaf area (1073 cm2), seeds pod-1(3.57), grain yield (2633 kg ha-1), dry biomass (8108kg ha-1) and harvest index (32.47) were obtained from the highest rate of P (92 kg P2O5 ha-1). For all inter-rows spacing, the leaf area, number of primary tillers, pods plant-1, seeds pod-1 and hundred seed weight were increased as intra-row spacing increase and the highest leaf area (1084 cm2), primary tillers (2.99) and hundred seed weight (54.59 g) were obtained from the widest (50 cm) inter-row spacing, while the highest effective nodules (59.56) and leaf area index (3.51) were resulted from the narrowest (30 cm) inter-row spacing. On the other hand, the interaction effects of inter and intra-row spacing significantly influenced, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, above ground dry biomass, grain yield and harvest index. The 30 cm inter-row by 15 cm intra-row spacing gave the highest grain yield (2495 kg ha-1), harvest index (35.79%) and pods plant-1(19.68) whereas the highest dry biomass (8738 kg ha-1) was obtained from 30 cm x 5 cm spacing combination. Thus, it can be concluded that application of 92 kg P2O5 ha-1 rate of phosphorus at 30 x 15 cm spacing combination proved to be superior with respect to grain yield in the study area. However, further study at least for one more cropping season under different soils is required to reach at conclusive recommendation.
Phytochemical and Physicochemical Properties of Leaf, Stem and Flowers of Luffa Aegyptiaca (Johann Veslingius)
Authors: Essiett U. A. ; Okon J. E. ; Anyasodor C. D.
The leaf, stem and flowers of Luffa aegyptiaca were screened for their phytochemical and physicochemical properties. The phytochemical evaluation of the leaf, stem and flowers revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides. Alkaloids were only present in the flowers. Cyanogenetic glycosides and phlobatannin were absent in the leaf and stem respectively. The nutrient value shows that the leaves contain 10.01% of moisture, 0.78% of crude protein, 2.40% of lipids, 14.61% of crude fibre, 3.65%of ash and 48.02% of carbohydrate. The stem contain7.02% of moisture, 3.01% of crude protein, 4.50% of lipids, 8.10% of crude fibre, 2.50% of ash and 61% of carbohydrate. While the flowers contain4.01% of moisture, 0.5% of crude protein, 5.1% of lipids, 7.01% of crude fibre, 1.5% of ash and 45.1% of carbohydrate. These findings prove that Luffa aegyptiaca contains bioactive compounds that may be useful in nutrition and explains its popular use in traditional medicine in Nigeria.