Journal of Agriculture and Crops
Online ISSN: 2412-6381
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 8 Number 4 October 2022
Assessment of Postharvest Loss of Avocado at Producers Level (Case of Wolaita and KembataTembaro Zones)
Authors: Abera Abebe ; Berhanu Kuma ; Lemma Zemedu
The current study was to estimation the post-harvest loss of avocado at the producer level using cross-sectional data obtained from 385 proportionately sampled respondents from Wolaita and Kembata Tembaro Zones, the SNNPR of Ethiopia. Descriptive and multiple regression analysis were used to estimate the amount and determinant of post harvest loss. The average post-harvest loss of avocado at the producer level was estimated at 24.1 per cent, of which 5.7 per cent was due to poor harvesting practices and 4.9 per cent to poor storage practices. Sex, education, income, training, contact with extension agents, distance from the nearest road, and off-farm income were found to be negative determinants, whereas storage accessibility and avocado harvest techniques were found to be positive determinants of post-harvest loss of avocado fruits. Post-harvest losses contribute significantly to food insecurity and create a problem for the income source of individuals and the economy of the country.
Potassium Sorbate Postharvest Treatment to Control Penicillium spp. Molds and Maintain Quality of ‘Wonderful’ Pomegranates and ‘Anna’ Apples during Cold Storage
Authors: Thanaa Sh. M. Mahmoud ; Fatma K. M. Shaaban ; Thauria M.M.Abo-El Wafa ; Wael M. Ibrahim
This study was carried out for two successive seasons 2020 and 2021 in order to evaluate the efficiency dipping of Wonderful pomegranate and Anna apple fruits in potassium sorbate (K-sorb.) at 3% / 2 min to maintain fruit quality and control postharvest diseases caused by Penicillium spp. ( P. italicum and P. sp.) during cold storage. Fruits were stored at 5°C and 85-90% RH for 75 days. The reduction in linear growth was correlated to the increase in potassium sorbate concentrations. Potassium sorbet at 0.06% concentration gave the maximum inhibition of the linear growth of Penicillium spp. Also, the application of potassium sorbate showed the best results in reducing the deterioration of various physical and chemical characteristics of ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate and ‘Anna’ apple fruits during cold storage and extending its storability. Potassium sorbate treatments mitigated the incidence of fruit decay and successfully decreased fruit weight loss and increased SSC: TA ratio, the total phenolic content, and activities of peroxidase and catalase enzymes relative to the control treatment.
Insecticidal Potentials and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Extracts of Bacopa Floribunda and Ludwigia Decurrens Plants
Authors: Adewole E. ; Ogola-Emma E. ; David P. et. al.
The negative impact of insecticides used to combat insect-borne plant ailments cannot be emphasized, as they have had a major influence on plant yields throughout time, and the side effect of insecticide residue on consumers cannot be overstated either. Callosobrochus maculatus is an insect that attacks cowpeas and has the potential to significantly reduce crop productivity. This research developed from investigations into the utilization of biological control technologies that have little or no harmful influence on humans or the environment. The leaves of Bacopa Floribunda (BFL) and Ludwigia Decurrens (LDL) were air dried, powdered, and extracted with n-hexane. The insecticidal activities were carried out according to protocol, and the LC50 was determined using online software from AAT Bioquest, Inc. The presence of bioactive compounds was detected using GC-MS. The Callosobrochus maculatus mortality rate was found to be a function of exposure time and concentration of the extracts, with the maximum mortality rate (66.67±8.82 percent) occurring after 72 hours at 0.5 mg/ml for BFL extract. The highest mortality rate (70.00 ±5.77 percent) was obtained for the LDL extract at 72 hours at 0.5 mg/ml of the extract concentration, which was better than the other extract (BFL) at 0.5 mg/ml. The lethal concentration LC50 for BFL varies from 0.251 (24 hours), 0.276 (48 hours), and 0.223 (72 hours), while the LC50 for LDL extract is 0.228 (24 hours), 0.039 (48 hours), and 0.663 (72 hours) (72 hrs). The presence of chemicals found could be linked to the extracts’ insecticidal properties. The excellent potential of the extracts as insect biocontrol agents against Callosobrochus maculatus can be recommended for future research as insect biocontrol agents.
Effect of Optimal Area and Mineral Feed Level on Obtaining High Yields of Malting Barley
Authors: Alexsandr Pavlovich Eryashev ; Pavel Aleksandrovich Eryashev
The purpose of this study was the scientific justification for obtaining high yields of malting barley of the Grace variety based on the optimal area and mineral level. The objective of the study was to evaluate the change in the completeness of germination, preservation, and survival of plants resulting from mineral nutrition and the nutrition area and to establish the growth, development, and change in the elements of the crop structure and yield depending on the use of mineral fertilizers (N30P30K30, N60P60K60) and nutrition area. Considering the agro-climatic resources of the southeast of the forest-steppe in the Non-Chernozem region and the biological features, the authors developed methods for realizing the productive potential of malting barley of the Grace variety. A two-factor field experiment was set in 2016, 2018, and 2019. Rational doses of mineral fertilizers and seeding rates in the technology of cultivation of multi-row barley are determined. The paper presents the results of studies on the complex effect of the background of mineral nutrition and the area of nutrition on the density, completeness of germination; preservation, survival of plants; elements of the crop structure, and grain yield of malting barley of the Grace variety on leached chernozems of the Republic of Mordovia (Russia). It is established that the highest grain yield (3.84 t/ha) is provided when mineral fertilizers are applied at the rate of N60P60K60 and the seeds are sown at a norm of 5.0 million germinating seeds per ha.
Sorghum Grain Quality as Affected by Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources, Cultivar and Field Condition
Authors: Modisapudi S. L. ; Sebetha E. T.
The source of nitrogen fertilizer applied in the soil during the development of sorghum can affect the grain quality. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of sorghum grains as influenced by different nitrogen fertilizer sources and field conditions. The experiment used incorporated a 2x5x2 factorial arranged in a split-split plot design that was fitted into a randomized complete block design. Sorghum grain samples were analyzed for ash, fiber, fat, protein, and starch contents in percentages by using a Near-infrared spectroscopy machine. Nitrogen fertilizer source and had a significant effect on sorghum crude protein content during the 2018/19 planting season. The study indicated that nitrogen fertilizer sources such as limestone ammonium nitrate and urea are suitable for improving the quality of the sorghum grain. For example, limestone ammonium nitrate significantly improved the quality of the sorghum grain since it affected protein and starch content. Urea was also found to play a significant role in the grain quality as it affected the fiber and starch content of the grain. Field conditions had a significant effect on sorghum crude fiber and protein during the 2019/20 planting season. The increase in crude fiber under dryland field conditions proves that the quality of sorghum can be increased under no supplementary irrigation. This study, therefore, indicates that sorghum grain quality is influenced by the type of cultivar, the nitrogen fertilizer source, and the field conditions.
Physicochemical Properties of Un-parboiled Oryza Species Cultivated in Igbemo-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Authors: Adewole E. ; Ogola-Emma E. ; Ojo A. et. al.
The amounts of carbohydrate, protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, and mineral elements (Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Potassium, Sodium, and Zinc) in two kinds of rice grown in Igbemo-Ekiti, Ekiti State, were determined in this study. Using Gc-Ms spectrometric analysis, the fatty acids contained in the oil of Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima were identified. On a dry weight basis, the estimated carbohydrate content of rice samples ranged from 71.41 ± 0.37 to 74.02 ± 0.35 %, with no significant difference in carbohydrate content amongst the examined species, with Oryza glaberrima having the highest carbohydrate content. Protein levels ranged from 7.06 ±0.35 to 7.11 ± 0.20 %, with Oryza sativa having the highest protein content. The crude fat levels in the tubers ranged from 6.26 ± 0.04 to 7.18 ±0.17 %, with Oryza sativa having the highest level. The crude fiber content ranged from 3.02 ±0.32 to 3.77± 0.38 %, with Oryza sativa having the highest level and the ash content ranging from 0.51± 0.07 to 0.92± 0.32 %. Calcium, sodium, and potassium concentrations were all fairly high in both species. The Gc-Ms chromatogram indicated a wide range of bioactive chemicals, the majority of which were fatty acids. Linolenic acid, Arachidic acid, Palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, Myristoleic acid, and Capric acids were some of the primary chemical components detected in the Oryza sativa chromatogram, however monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in lesser amounts. Linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, Myristoleic acid, Elaidic acid, Linolelaidic acid, stearic acid, and Behenic acid have been discovered in Oryza glaberrima, making them more favorable in nutrition and diet. The two Oryza types were found to be high in fatty acids, protein, and mineral content.
The Effects of Tea Plantation Upon the Soil Properties Based Upon the Comparative Study of India and China: A Meta – Analysis
Authors: Manorama Thapa ; SUBHANKAR Gurung ; Binghui He
The effects of tea plantations upon soil are of great concern in the context of monoculture crops due to their increasing demand resulting in the expansion of tea growing areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the soil’s Physico-chemical properties, soil nutrient concentrations, and stoichiometry in major tea-growing areas of India and China. For this study Meta-analysis approach was used to examine the difference between the two countries. Soil pH tends to be more acidic in Chinese soil (CS) than in Indian Soil (IS), soil Bulk Density (BD) was higher in CS with low soil Total Porosity (TP). Whereas the soil texture in CS was fine texture with Silt Clay while IS texture was coarse with sandy clay loam. Soil Carbon (C) showed no significant difference; while Nitrogen (N) concentration showed a significant difference only at the top layer with a higher concentration in IS. Soil Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) concentration were significantly higher CS than IS at all soil depths. The C: N ratio in both the countries was below 10 showing the accumulation of organic matter is low whilst the C: P ratio showed net mineralization of nutrients in both the countries. The N: P ratio represented N limitation in CS while P limitations in IS. The comparison of soil physical-chemical properties between India and China revealed the distinct differences between the tea plantation soils in both of these countries. Except for C concentration C: P, N: K, and P: K ratio all the properties are deemed to be different. Our results suggest that a balanced fertilizer application and these N and P limitations in tea growing soil of these two countries should be paid more attention to.
The Nigerian Agricultural Sector: Analysis of Influential Impediment Factors to Its Growth, Development and Prospects for Improvements
Authors: Alexander C. Ugwukah
This work interrogates the nature and structure of the Agricultural Sector in Nigeria, focusing on the historical trend of its growth, development, decline, and prospects of improving the sector in due course. The study further embarked on a comparative analysis of the country’s agricultural patterns with those of the advanced economies in order to articulate/draw out the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional practices which to a large extent have affected its long-term potentiality of not just feeding the nation’s citizenry but equally attracting measurable contribution to the nation’s economic development and improving the GDP of the country. The work progresses analytically by probing into the influential impediment factors which have affected its growth and development over the years through a historical methodology. In the long run, the work trails to an end by envisaging the prospects of the sector, and efforts made by the federal government of Nigeria as well as the private sector to ensure the steady revival of the sector. The work is structured into (i) Introduction, (ii) Nigeria’s Agricultural Sector in Historical Perspective (iii) Importance of Agricultural Sector to the Nigerian Economy (iv) A comparative Analysis between Production/Manufacturing Potentiality of Agricultural Products in EDCs and LDCs (v) Research Findings: Factors of Influential Impediments to Growth and Development of the Agricultural Sector Challenges (vi) Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations.
Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Compost Treatment on Physico-Chemical Properties of Garden Soil
Authors: Mary Lalremruati ; Angom Sarjubala Devi ; Anil Pratap Singh
In the present study amendment of three types of compost made from lemon peels (LP), vegetable waste (VW), and cooked food waste (CF) in garden soil was carried out. It was observed that pH in all the treatments increased from control with a maximum in LP with 22% and a minimum in CF with 10% at 270 days. The soil temperature was higher than control with a maximum increase of 52% in CF and a minimum of 20% in VW at 90 days. A maximum increase of OC has been observed in CF compost-treated soil with 106% followed by LP with 64% and 24% in VW at 90 days.TN increased from control up to 90 days with 484, 100, and 46% rise in CF, VW, and LP respectively. AP and AK also showed a very high increase rate with a maximum of 551% in CF and 703% in LP respectively.
Influence of Agricultural Activities on Housing and Settlement Patterns of Rural Communities in Benue State Nigeria
Authors: Thomas Terna Aule ; Roshida Binti Abdul Majid ; Mahmud Bin Mohd Jusan
Physical, social, and economic elements, such as agricultural occupation, impact the forms of house and settlement patterns such as shape, space enclosure, appearance, and organization. This research aims to investigate the impact of agricultural activities on the housing and settlement patterns of the Benue people of central Nigeria. The exploratory sequential research approach was utilized where qualitative and quantitative attributes and consequences were elicited based on the Means-End Chain mode. The study was done in stages between June 2020 and March 2022, with 24 individuals first interviewed and 474 nominal survey questionnaires completed and returned. Preliminary data checks for the subsequent 241 ordinal surveys returned to reveal a significant Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity, a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value of 0.872, and a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.934. While the interviews and nominal surveys provide considerable correlations between agricultural activities and the people’s settlement patterns, statistical validations of the ordinal survey yield minute evidence of the associations. The conclusions of this study are consistent with prior studies, which connect agricultural activities to people’s house form and settlement patterns. It is recommended that authorities make transformative efforts to nucleate the fragmented communities to free up more area for mechanized farming, combat insecurity, and reduce competition for territorial resources.
Institutional Principles of Intensifying the Innovative Development of Small and Medium Agribusiness
Authors: Uliana Berezhnytska ; Olena Dobrovolska ; Liudmyla Uniiat et. al.
At the present stage of economic development, one of the most essential tasks is to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture and the formation of competitive agricultural production. The formation and development of the organizational and economic mechanism for activating the innovative development of small and medium-sized businesses in agriculture is a complex system of relations that requires support from the state, so the authors proposed directions and forms of state support for activating the innovative development of small and medium-sized agribusiness, as well as the conceptual foundations for the formation of wholesale distribution centers in agriculture for the development of small and medium-sized businesses. The proposed activities will make it possible to form cooperative and integration ties between small and large enterprises of the agro-industrial complex and intensify their innovative development.
Formation and Implementation of Public-Private Partnership Projects in the Agricultural Sector
Authors: Oksana Lazor ; Oleh Lazor ; Nataliia Lutska et. al.
Existing mechanisms for integrating state and public resources with opportunities and business resources to achieve critical social goals need significant changes. This fully applies to the goals, functions, and mechanism of public-private partnership projects, the advantage of which is the involvement in traditional public sectors of the economy of private business practices, as well as the desire to eliminate the shortcomings of both methods of management through optimal allocation of resources, responsibilities, and risks. The article analyzed the current state of public-private partnerships in terms of periods, geography, and industries in the article. The recent positive changes related to PPP have been identified and analyzed. The authors proposed methodological bases for assessing the feasibility of PPP projects and proposed a system of indicators of the effectiveness of PPP projects and conceptual principles for creating a favorable environment for implementing public-private partnership projects in the agricultural sector in Ukraine.
Employment in the Agricultural Sector in the Coordinates of the Digital Economy: New Parameters and Strategic Vectors of Social Policy
Authors: Yaroslav Kichuk ; Tetyana Semigina ; Vadim Zubov et. al.
The intensive development and spread of digital technologies in recent years have significantly changed the face of key sectors of the economy and the social sphere. In current conditions, agriculture is on the verge of overcoming global challenges associated with transformational processes in the economy and society as a whole. Rural territories are the most important resource of the country, they have a powerful natural, demographic, economic, historical, and cultural potential, which can ensure sustainable diversified development of the region, full employment, high level and quality of life of the rural population. Employment in rural areas is affected by several complex and ambiguous factors - the total number of able-bodied population, the development of the agricultural sector, the provision of enterprises with material and technical resources, and the entrepreneurial activity of rural residents, the development of social infrastructure and several other factors.
Internationalization of Sales Marketing of Agricultural Enterprises in the Conditions of Developed Informatization
Authors: Iryna Lorvi ; Inna Deineha ; Liudmyla Danilova et. al.
The complexity and instability of the marketing environment in which domestic enterprises operate, threats and challenges associated with the complex geopolitical situation, and the variability of the world economy force entrepreneurs to seek new areas and promising areas of development not only in national but also in international markets using all available tools. The article aims to develop a recommendation for the internationalization of marketing sales of agricultural enterprises using information tools. Due to the peculiarities of the agricultural sector, the authors conducted a preliminary analysis, which showed that although the structure is dominated by small enterprises with an area of up to 100 hectares (from 50% to almost 80% of the structure), still the total production falls on medium and large enterprises. Thus, the recommendations are primarily designed for such agricultural enterprises. To achieve this goal, the authors analyzed the features of agricultural enterprises and their impact on marketing and informatization and explored the characteristics of modern business digitalization. The authors used both general and special research methods; the study is based on a system-logical approach. The primary materials of the study are the reporting of agricultural enterprises, industry reports and the official world and Ukrainian statistics. All of this allowed to propose a mechanism for internationalization of marketing of agricultural enterprises and highlight the features of the use of digitalization and digitization for it.
The Tripod Relationship Between Local Embalmment, Environment and Human Health Implications in Cross River State, Nigeria
Authors: Eneji Chris-Valentine Ogar ; Udumo Bassey Obeten ; Ayua Benjamin Ambe et. al.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the environmental and health implications of local embalmment in Cross River State, Nigeria. The Ex-post-facto research design was adopted for this study. Six embalmment sites from six Local Government Areas were randomly selected across the state from where water and soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis and testing. The environmental impacts, as well as the health implications of local embalmment, were investigated. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied for the physicochemical parameters using a correlation matrix to evaluate factors influencing the groundwater chemistry and sources of pollution in the aquifer of the areas. Some laboratory procedures were also adopted to test the chemistry of the adjoining soils for the impacts of these embalmment chemicals as used by these morticians. A comparative analysis was further done on the different soil samples, the ones directly affected by the immediate mortuary facilities and those away from the facilities. A structured questionnaire made up of twenty items was also administered to the mortuary attendants and residents of the communities and adjoining communities where these embalmment homes are located. Simple percentage and correlation analysis was done to examine the perceived effect of embalmment chemicals on the environment and the health of residents. The results obtained from the laboratory analyses of selected groundwater and soil samples around the mortuary sites studied indicated that formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, humectants, metals, coli forms, microorganisms, and other contaminants from the mortuary sites have impaired the soil and water quality. It was recommended among others that green embalmment procedures should be encouraged, embalmment services should be located far away from residential areas and water bodies; wastes from embalmment/mortuary services should be sustainably disposed of to avoid these chemicals from contaminating the environment.
Development of Methods for the Use of Aphid Alarm and Mite Aggregation Pheromones
Authors: Irina Sergeevna Agasyeva ; Vladimir Yakovlevich Ismailov ; Mariya Vladimirovna Nefedova ; Anton Sergeevich Nastasiy
The purpose of this work was to develop effective methods of protecting fruit crops based on the use of aphid alarm and mite aggregation pheromones. The study was conducted in 2020-2021 on a private farm in the Krasnodar Territory. Laboratory studies were carried out on two types of aphids: Aphis pomi Deg. and Myzus cerasi F. with the use of trans-beta-farnesene where crushed aphids of the tested species served as the source of the alarm pheromone, and insects without treatment were used as a control group. Field tests were carried out on registered trees with aphid colonies up to 10% of shoots in the crown, and mite colonies of 15-23 specimens/ leaf. Significant differences in the types of ethological reactions of apple and cherry aphids to trans-beta-farnesene were observed. In A. pomi, the predominant type was the twitching of the body during the initial period of exposure to the semiochemical. In cherry aphids, only one type of behavioral reaction to the alarm pheromone was noted, namely leaving the feeding site. The results of testing trans-beta-farnesene compositions with preparations based on biorational active substances, Phytoverm CE (2 g/l), and experimental insecticides based on coriander essential oil indicate the prospects of using the aphid alarm pheromone (trans-beta-farnesene) to increase the effectiveness of anti-aphid insecticides. Similar results were obtained in tests of trans-nerolidol, the pheromone used for aggregation of red spider mites in a composition with the Apollo, SC acaricide (500 g/l).
Water Deficit Stress Tolerance Assessment in Barley Cultivars Using Drought Tolerance Indices
Authors: Md. Ahsan Habib ; Md. Abdul Mannan ; Md. Abdul Karim et.al.
Crop productivity is greatly suffering from drought stress. Understanding the drought tolerance capability of the crop varieties available in a country is the prime consideration for accessibility in a very drought adaptation. The target of this analysis work was to look at the drought tolerance potentiality of five cultivated barley varieties (BARI Barley5, BARI Barley6, BARI Barley7, BARI Barley8, and BARI Barley9) through calculative drought tolerance indices. The experiment was laid down in a completely randomized design (CRD) with maintaining three replications, wherever crops were grown in check (80% of FC) and water deficit atmosphere (50% of FC). Stress Tolerance (TOL), Mean Productivity (MP), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Stress susceptibility Index (SSI), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Harmonic mean (HAM), Yield Index (YI), and Yield Stability index (STI) on grain yield in check and drought conditions were calculated. BARI Barley7 and BARI Barley8 were the foremost tolerant selection and BARI Barley9 was susceptible one based on TOL and SSI. Drought tolerance indices like MP, HAM, GMP, and TOL additionally with STI showed a high correlation with grain yield under each condition and were recognized as appropriate indices to distinguish varieties with high grain yield potential and low susceptibility to water deficit stress.