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Volume 9 Number 4 October 2023

Comparative Morpho-Agronomic and Biochemical Profiling of Different Roselle  Morphotypes Based on Their Growth and Yield Associated Attributes


Authors: Keya Akter ; Md. Ariful Islam ; Shishir Rasul, et. al.
Pages: 514-523
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.214.523
Abstract
When introducing a new, promising crop to an area, farmers can be assisted in selecting the crops and varieties that are most suitable for commercialization by doing an assessment of the yield characteristics. Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa, as Roselle, is valued as a food crop for its great nutritional potential, vibrant pigment richness, and therapeutic significance. However, there is little information available because it is a very recent crop in Bangladesh. Finding the morphotype that performed the best given the yield characteristics was the study’s main goal. Green plant with green calyx (WC), light red plant with light red calyx (LRC), and deep red plant with deep red calyx (DRC) were the performed morphotypes of Roselle. A number of morphological (plant height, stem perimeter, branches & capsule features etc.) and biochemical (total chlorophyll, carotenoid and phenolic content) were evaluated. For their yield characteristics, all morphotypes were noticeably distinct from one another.  While plant height was identical in both LRC and DRC, DRC performed better in terms of capsules number produced per plant (av.  273.00 plant-1 capsules weighing 1779.10 g). Shelling ratio (% calyx to capsule) was also greater in DRC (av. 41.90%) than other two morphotypes. Dry matter content was greater in stem with branches and leaf, irrespective of morphotypes. Mature leaves of LRC had significant levels of total chlorophyll (1.34 mgg-1FW). In our study phenolic content reduced as capsule size increased in WC but not in LRC or DRC. In contrast to the other three morphotypes, the deep red plant with deep red calyx (DRC) performed the best, according to our study.

How to Cite: Keya Akter, Md. Ariful Islam, Shishir Rasul, et.al., 2023. "Comparative Morpho-Agronomic and Biochemical Profiling of Different Roselle  Morphotypes Based on their Growth and Yield Associated Attributes." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 514-523.



Search for Toxic Trace Elements in Rosa rugosa Thunb. By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Accumulation and Responses to Exposure


Authors: Kirill Tkachenko ; Alla Kapelian ; Elizaveta Varfolomeeva. et. al.
Pages: 503-513
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.503.513
Abstract
Species of the genus Rosa L. are widely used in urban gardening, and they are of considerable interest as plants accumulating heavy metals in an urban environment. Literature data are ambiguous about whether these species accumulate trace and toxic elements. Its fruits are used as medicinal raw materials in folk and official medicine. The purpose of the study is to determine whether this type of wild rose accumulates toxic metals (as well as various macro- and microelements), if so, which ones and in which organs, and to what extent raw materials of the plant can be used. For the first time, multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis at the reactor IBR-2 of FLNP JINR in Dubna, Russia, was applied to examine accumulation of major and trace elements in various organs of Rosa rugosa Thunb. (Rosaceae family), namely, roots, leaves, fruits and seeds. A total of 33 elements (Al, Ca, Cl, I, Mg, Mn, V, As, Br, K, La, Na, Mo, Sm, U, W, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, and Zn) were determined. Samples were taken in the summer-autumn period of 2020, both in the city of St. Petersburg and on the coast of the Baltic Sea, Russia. This research found no critical accumulation of trace and toxic elements in different organs of R. rugose, but revealed quite high accumulation of Fe and Co in urban transport highway area.

How to Cite: Kirill Tkachenko, Alla Kapelian, Elizaveta Varfolomeeva. et. al. 2023. " Search for Toxic Trace Elements in Rosa rugosa Thunb. By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Accumulation and Responses to Exposure." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 503-513.



Citric Acid and Hydro-Priming and Exogenous Application Alleviate Salt-Inhibited Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)


Authors: Md. Monir Hossain ; Jannatul Ferdush ; Kaya Akter. et.al.
Pages: 495-502
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.495.502
Abstract
Salinity is a major barrier for seed germination, plant growth and production. Seed pre-treatment and exogenous chemical usage can effectively confer salt tolerance. We evaluated the potential of citric acid (CA) as priming and exogenous agents to ameliorate salt-inhibited germination and growth of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in this study. The seeds were primed with 0.5 mM and 1 mM CA, and soaked in distilled water (hydro-priming) for 30 min. In addition, untreated seeds were used for the control experiment. Finally, primed seeds were subjected to 100 mM NaCl stress. Our results demonstrated that salinity significantly reduced the germination percentage (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), seed vigor index (SVI), root length (RL), shoot length (SL), shoot–root fresh and dry weight, and plant height and increased mean germination time (MGT). The results also indicated that salinity stress considerably decreased the relative water content (RWC) and photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids, and increased relative water loss (RWL). The CA- and hydro-priming improved the GP, GI, GE SL, RL, SVI, and growth of seedlings, and reduced MGT under salt stress. Data also demonstrated that the supplementation of CA enhanced RWC and photosynthetic pigments and lowered RWL in the state of saline condition. When compared to other treatments, pretreatment, and exogenous use of 1 mM CA was determined to be comparatively more effective at imparting the salt tolerance of Chilli.

How to Cite: Md. Monir Hossain, Jannatul Ferdous, Kaya Akter. et.al. 2023. " Citric Acid and Hydro-Priming and Exogenous Application Alleviate Salt-Inhibited Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 495-502.



Mushroom Media Waste and Goat Manure Application on Growth and Yield of Shallots


Authors: Rudi Priyadi ; Yugi R. Ahadiyat ; Yaya Sunarya. et. al.
Pages: 488-494
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.488.494
Abstract
The objective of this study was to find out the growth and yield of shallots (Allium ascalonicum L.) with the application of mushroom media waste and goat manure. A randomized block design was used with six treatments viz. without mushroom media waste and goat manure, 25 ton/ha mushroom media waste, 20 ton/ha  mushroom media waste + 5 ton/ha goat manure, 15 ton/ha mushroom media waste + 10 ton/ha goat manure, 10 ton/ha mushroom media waste + 15 ton/ha goat manure, and 5 ton/ha mushroom media waste + 20 ton/ha goat manure, and repeated four times. The observed variables were plant height per hill, number of leaves per hill, number of bulbs per hill, wet weight of bulbs per hill, wet weight bulbs per plot, dry weight of bulbs per plot, and yield per hectare. The results showed that the application of 10 ton/ha mushroom media wastes organic fertilizer + 15 ton/ha goat manure gained 1.26 kg/plot, equal to 7.7 ton/ha. The application of mushroom media waste and goat manure had the potency to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizers in supporting eco-friendly agriculture.

How to Cite: Rudi Priyadi, Yugi R. Ahadiyat, Yaya, Sunarya, et. al. 2023. "Mushroom Media Waste and Goat Manure Application on Growth and Yield of Shallots." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 488-494.



The Impact of Farmers’ Awareness of Visit to Health Care Centers on their Health Problems in Bangladesh


Authors: Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq ; Sayeed Mahmud
Pages: 483-487
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.483-487
Abstract
Farmers are the prime human resource for the economic development of a country. So understanding the health problems of framers and their communication with the health care centers are vital. In this regard, the study aims to identify the impact of farmers’ awareness of visit to health care centers on their health problems. The study was conducted in the Raozan sub-district of the Chittagong district of Bangladesh. The size of the sample was 126. The selection of the study site and the number of respondents were done purposively. Descriptive and quantitative analysis methods have been adopted to examine the study’s objective. The study found that farmers’ frequent visit to health care centers can reduce their occupational health problems. Furthermore, the personal protective equipment and age variables of farmers may also control the farmers’ occupational health problems. The majority of the sample farmers contacted the health care centers but still many farmers unaware to communicate with the health care centers. The study is concluded with fewer recommendations to formulate a health care policy of farmers by consolidating with the agricultural development in Bangladesh.

How to Cite: Abu, Z. M. H. and Sayeed, M. 2023. "The Impact of Farmers’ Awareness of Visit to Health Care Centers on their Health Problems in Bangladesh." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 483-487.



Soil quality Change Following Compost and Farmyard Manure Application in Maize and Cassava based Agro-ecosystems of Mvomero and Masasi -Tanzania


Authors: John Constantine ; Mawazo J. Shitindi ; Kallunde P. Sibuga. et. al
Pages: 472-482
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.472.482
Abstract
Soil quality is a major driver for improved crop production and sustainable food security. While crop response to soil applied organic amendments is widely studied, little has been done to establish the effect of such amendments on soil quality. Field experiments were conducted  for two seasons (2019/20 and 2020/21) in Mvomero and Masasi districts to study the effects of compost (CP) and Farmyard manure (FYM) application on selected soil quality attributes. Both CP and FYM were applied on maize, and cassava plots at 0.0 t ha-1 (Control), 2.5 t ha-1, 5 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1. Maize variety TMV-1 and Kiroba cassava variety were used as test crops in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.  Representative soil samples were collected before applying soil amendments and at the end of each season and analyzed for soil pH, Organic carbon (OC) and Extractable phosphorus (P). Assays of activities of ß-glucosidase and Phosphatase were performed on the samples as indicators of soil quality change. Results indicated that soil OC and soil extractable P increased with CP and FYM application rates at both sites. Activities of ß-glucosidase and Phosphatase increased in line with OC and extractable P, respectively. Application of CP or FYM at 5 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1 resulted into statistically similar effects on soil OC, extractable P and activities of ß-glucosidase and Phosphatase. It was concluded that application of either CP or FYM at 5 t ha-1 can improve soil OC and P availability in degraded soils of Masasi and Mvomero, while activities of ß-glucosidase and phosphatase can serve to indicate such changes in soil quality.

How to Cite: John Constantine, Shitindi, M. J., Sibuga, K. P. and Angelika, H. 2023. "Soil quality Change Following Compost and Farmyard Manure Application in Maize and Cassava based Agro-ecosystems of Mvomero and Masasi -Tanzania." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 472-482.



Variation in Soil Physicochemical Properties of Different Land Use Types in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria


Authors: Orji J. E. ; Igwe C. A. ; Osuji E. E., et. al.
Pages: 462-471
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.462.471
Abstract
The effect of land use on soil physicochemical properties was evaluated in soils of Abakaliki, south eastern Nigeria. The four land use types selected are managed Gmelina plantation (MP), fallow land (FL), grass land (GL) and continuously cultivated soil (CCS). Soil samples (undisturbed and auger) were collected from three soil depths of 0 – 20 cm, 20 - 40 cm and 40 – 60 ¬¬_ cm for physicochemical properties analysis. Bulk density was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (1.33 – 1.50 gcm-3) in FL across the depths than other land use types. The pH of the soils was moderately to slightly acidic. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in FL than others and followed the trend FL>MP>GL>CCS. The exchangeable acidity was significantly different among the land use type but was the highest in MF (2.20) and the lowest in (GL). Across the soil depths, 0-20 _cm recorded higher values for bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus compared to other soil depths. In all, FL, MF and GL recorded higher values for most soil properties studied, while CCS recorded lower values. There was a decline in most of the properties studied due to continuous cultivation.

How to Cite: Orji J. E., Igwe C. A., Osuji E. E., et. al., 2023. "Variation in Soil Physicochemical Properties of Different Land Use Types in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 462-471.



Brown Algae (Sargassum Subrepandum) from Egypt Exhibited High Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Constituent's Content: A Biological Application on Obesity and its Complications in Experimental Rats


Authors: Yousif A. Elhassaneen ; Hadeer M. Gadallah ; Amal Z. Nasef
Pages: 441-461
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.441.461
Abstract
Obesity is a medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases and health problems known as complications of obesity. In view of the side effects that resulted from the use of drug therapy and surgical interventions in the treatment of obesity, some of which posed a threat to health, which called for the search for safe and alternative alternative/natural methods. Therefore, the current study was conducted with the aim of exploring the effect of dietary intervention using marine algae (Sargassum subrepandum) on obesity and its complications in experimental rats. Sargassum subrepandum powder (SSP) showed a high nutritional composition through its high of essential nutrients (carbohydrates, fiber, protein and ash), minerals (K, Na, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) and vitamins (A, C, B2, B3, B9, E). It also contains many of the following bioactive constituents: polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, tannins, terpenoids, triterpenoids, polysaccharides, anthocyanin’s and  kaempherol, which resulted in high antioxidant activity. On the other side, biological experiment indicated that rats of the model obese group recorded 335.01 g i.e. increased by the rate of 115.60% when compared to the base line. Intervention with SSP by 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lead to significant (p≤0.05) decreasing on body weight of the model obese rats which recorded 108.06, 94.46, 77.28 and 73.18 %, respectively when compared to the base line. Also, SSP was effective in protecting against obese complications including inhibit liver disorders through liver serum enzymes-lowering activity, improvement of the serum antioxidant status (increase the glutathione fractions and decrease the formation of malonaldehyde and reactive oxygen species). The histological examinations of the heart and adipose tissue confirmed these results. In conclusion, we recommended SSP by a concentration up to 6% to be included in daily diets, drinks and food supplementation of normal and obese people.

How to Cite: Yousif A. Elhassaneen, Hadeer M. Gadallah, Amal Z. Nasef, 2023. "Brown Algae (Sargassum Subrepandum) from Egypt Exhibited High Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Constituent’s Content: A Biological Application on Obesity and its Complications in Experimental Rats." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 441-461.



Productivity Performance of Musa AAA Under Diferents Planting Densities and Two Cultivars (Grand Nain and Williams) in Banana Intensive Agrosystems in the Agneby-Tiassa Region, Côte D'ivoire


Authors: N’GUESSAN Patrick Henri ; KOUAME Konan Didier ; YAO Kouadio Jacques Edouard. et.al.
Pages: 427-440
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.427.440
Abstract
The study was conducted on Agro-industrial farm of Brimbo, property of S.C.B, located in the Agneby-Tiassa region. The study aimed to contribute to the sustainable production of dessert bananas in Côte d’Ivoire through the development of new technical itineraries. The Grand Nain and Williams cultivars were planted in a block design with total randomisation, comprising eight treatments. During plant growth, the effect of density and cultivar on phytopathological parameters of Black Leaf Streak Disease and on growth and production parameters of the banana plant were evaluated. The results showed that planting density influenced the rank of YLS in both cultivars with the highest mean values at 1550 ; 1600 ; 1650 and 1700 plants/ha, with 7.0 ; 7.1 ; 7.0 ; 7.2 for Grand Nain and 7.2 ; 7.0 ; 7.1 ; 7.1 for Williams respectively. The height of the banana plants ranged from 216.9 to 227.1 cm in Grand Nain and from 228.6 to 237.0 cm in Williams. A significant difference was observed for the pseudotruncular circumference with values between 67.5 and 71.5 cm in the cultivar Grand Nain and between 70.6 and 75.5 cm in the cultivar Williams. NLF was significantly influenced by density and cultivar. The best bunch weights were obtained at 1900 plants/ha for Grand Nain and 22.6 kg for Williams at 1550 plants/ha. This study showed that the removal of immature lesion-bearing areas combined with planting density had varying effects on Black Leaf Streak Disease status, growth and productivity of banana plants of the Grand Nain and Williams cultivars.



Effects of Pesticides on Selected Vegetable Crops Grown in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria


Authors: Odera Chukwumaijem Okafor ; Ifeanyi Charles Okeke ; Ifeoma Ibekwe, et.al.
Pages: 421-426
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jac.94.421.426
Abstract
The study analyzed the effects of pesticides on selected vegetable crops grown in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria. The pesticide Dichlorvos (DD Force) was used to treat sites planted with Amaranth, cucumber, and okra. Soil and vegetable samples were randomly collected after 30 days of incorporation and tested for traces of chloride and phosphate. The results of the analysis showed that amaranth, cucumber, and okra residue concentration exceeded the maximum residual limit. Chloride and phosphate residues exceed the Maximum Residue Limit in vegetable crops. The amount of chloride in the soil sample exceeded the Maximum Permissible Limit. The amount of phosphate in the soil samples was lower than the Maximum Permissible Limit. The fact that vegetables are often grown and used with pesticides to control pests requires caution. Therefore, it is recommended that there should be limits and controls on the use and production of pesticides.

How to Cite: Odera Chukwumaijem Okafor, Ifeanyi Charles Okeke, Ifeoma Ibekwe, 2023. "Effects of Pesticides on Selected Vegetable Crops Grown in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, vol. 9, pp. 421-426.