Volume 6 Number 6 June 2020

Universal ESL Scaffolding for the K-12 Teacher: A Literature Review

Authors: Marlynn Nicole Tatum ; Tonya Huber
Pages: 57-62
This review of the literature analyzes scaffolding as it relates to best practices in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom, grades K-12. As defined by many professional educators, instructional scaffolding is temporary support provided to students on an individual basis based on their needs. Despite the ever-increasing population of ESL students in K-12 classrooms, the ESL instructional approach lacks consistency from country to country, state to state, and classroom to classroom. There is a wealth of research on ESL instructional techniques, but a lack of studies on the impact of various approaches to instructional scaffolding. The articles in question address instructional scaffolding in different ways for different grade levels spanning K-12. Did one prevail as a potential universal scaffold? How might we, as educators, stop reinventing the wheel and rely on a sound methodology? Studies on scaffolding as it relates specifically to ESL student’s comprehension is limited. These findings have important implications for the practices of current and future ESL teachers.

Developing Competencies Among Learners; Teachers Perception of Music and Drama

Authors: Atuta Omweri Eric ; Beatrice N. Manyasi
Pages: 53-56
The study investigated Teachers Perception of the Use of Music and Drama in Developing Competencies among learners in secondary schools. The research questions were: To what extent does participation in music develop competencies among learners in secondary schools? and to what extent does participation in drama develop competencies among learners in secondary schools. The study used a descriptive research design in describing teacher’s perception of the use of Music and Drama in developing competencies among learners. Eighty teachers who were in charge of Music and Drama were selected to form the target population. The sampling technique used was census hence all the eighty teachers formed the study sample. Data was generated using Questionnaires. Validity of the instruments was done using research experts. A pilot study of the questionnaires to test their reliability was conducted by the researcher. Data was analyzed and interpreted according to the research questions. It was presented using frequencies and percentages. The findings revealed that learners who participated in music and drama developed various competencies such as: communication skills, creativity skills, critical thinking, problem solving, leadership skills and social skills. The study concluded that learners should be encouraged to participate in co-curricular activities such as Music and Drama to facilitate acquisition of diverse competencies. There is need for supportive policies to be developed and implemented.