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Volume 6 Number 6 June 2020

Evaluation of Chemical Constituents of Crude Oil

Authors: Chinedu Imo ; Ejim Moses Ijagem
Pages: 79-83
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.66.79.83
The chemical constituents of crude oil were evaluated in this study. Crude oil is used for many purposes. It is commonly used for production of fuel and in traditional medicine for various purposes. Some people also use crude oil as antidote for poisons. Analysis of the chemical constituents of crude oil was carried out with the use of GC (model No. 7890B) and MS detector (model 5977A). Several chemical constituents with various functions were detected in the crude oil. Some of the chemical constituents detected have been reported to be used for the production of some fuels, pesticides, volatile compounds, fragrance, food additives and antimicrobial agents. This study therefore showed that various important chemicals/compounds useful in traditional medicine and for industrial uses are present in crude oil, thereby making it a good raw material for industrial and medicinal purposes. However, some constituents of crude oil are known to be able to cause toxicity, making crude oil a toxic substance.

Growth, Yield, Nutritional and Mineral Composition of Solanum macrocarpon L. as Affected by Fertilizer Application

Authors: Damilola Grace Olanipon ; Joshua Kayode ; Modupe Janet Ayeni
Pages: 69-78
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.66.69.78
Indigenous vegetables are plant species that are of great nutritional and medicinal importance. In a bid to ensure their domestication, availability and consumption, it is necessary to investigate their response to fertilizer treatment and other suitable agronomic practices that will enhance their cultivation and nutritional composition. In this study, an experiment was carried out to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of Solanum macrocarpon. The experiment was laid out in a Complete Randomized Design with four treatments: NPK 200 kg /ha, - T1, Poultry manure 6t/ ha - T2, NPK and Poultry manure 100 kg/ha + 3 t/ha - T3, Control, No Fertilizer - T4. Leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, and stem diameter were measured using standard methods. Proximate and mineral analyses were also carried out in accordance with standard chemical methods. The growth and yield of S. macrocarpon was improved by fertilizer application. All growth parameters measured increased with plant age and significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the treatments. Results obtained from this study also highlighted the potential of poultry as an alternative source of Nitrogen required for plant growth. Although both organic and inorganic fertilizers improved the growth performance of the vegetable, yet, the inorganic fertilizer produced the best results for all the parameters studied. Inorganic (NPK) and organic (Poultry manure) fertilizer increased soil fertility and improved the nutritional composition, but Solanum macrocrapon plants grown with inorganic fertilizer performed better.

Influence of Mulching Materials on the Agronomic and Yield Parameters of Pineapple (Anana comosus L. Merr. Var. Sugar Loaf) in Owode -Yewa Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ogunkunle Tajudeen ; Oshagbemi H. O. ; Adamu T. J. ; Agboyinu E. B. ; Sorinolu B. A.
Pages: 62-68
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.66.62.68
A field research trial was conducted to assess the influence of mulching materials on the growth and yield of sugar loaf pineapple variety (Anana comosus L. Merr.). Slips of the pineapple were collected and nursed. At 9 months after nursing, 108 nursed pineapple plants measuring between 97-100cm were purposively selected and transplanted at 12 plants per experimental plot on beds covered with Trt1 (black polyethene sheet), Trt2 (organic matter) and Trt3 no application of mulch which served as (Control) and the whole arrangement was laid down using a Randomized Complete Block experimental Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Fifty percent (50%) of pineapple plants used per experimental plot was randomly selected for data collection. The number of leaves was counted, plant heights were measured and number of weeds growth were uprooted and counted at two (2) months interval for 14 months. At the end of the trial, the length and weight of the fruits were measured and recorded in centimetre (cm) and kilogram (kg). Both the number of days to flower initiation and fruit harvest maturity from day of transplanting were counted and recorded. Data collected were first tested for normality of distribution using Shapiro-wilk test at 0.05 level of significant. After ascertaining the normality of the data distribution, the data were then subjected to General Linear Model (GLM) Univariate Two Ways Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software package version 21. The significant means were separated using Duncans’ Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 0.05 level of significant. The result showed that significant different (P<0.05) existed in the influence of the mulching materials on the number of leaves and weed growth as well as length and weight of harvested fruits with black polyethene sheet showing the greatest influence. There was no significant different (P>0.05) in plant height, number of days to flower initiation and fruit harvesting from day of transplanting. It was concluded that black polyethene sheet (BPSH) positively influenced the growth and yield of sugar loaf pineapple variety. It is thus recommended that awareness through demonstration be created on the efficacy of plastic mulch for improved yield and reduction in risk of injury from the plant.

Phytochemical Constituents of Palm Oil

Authors: Chinedu Imo
Pages: 57-61
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.66.57.61
This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of palm oil. Palm oil is commonly used in nutrition for many reasons. Some people use it as antidote for certain types of poisons. The phytochemical analysis of was carried out with the use of GC (model No. 7890B) and MS detector (model 5977A). Some phytochemical constituents detected in palm oil has been reported to possess various biological, nutritional, pharmaceutical and industrial properties. The presence of some of the constituents showed palm oil will be useful in traditional medicine, synthesis of some pesticides and perfumes, and possess various antimicrobial activity and ability to preserve and improve certain food materials. Palm oil is recommended for many nutritional and industrial purposes.

Detection and Analysis of Mineral Elements in Giant Embryo Rice

Authors: Bo Peng ; Kun Xu ; Kun He ; Juan Peng ; Xia-Yu Tian ; Ling Sun ; Xiao-Hua Song ; Rui-Hua Pang ; Jin-Tao Li ; Quan-Xiu Wang ; Wei Zhou ; Hong-Yu Yuan
Pages: 50-56
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.66.50.56
Mineral elements are essential micronutrients necessary to constitute human tissue and maintain normal physiological functions. Micronutrient deficiencies are an important issue currently faced in the world. The best strategy to solve this problem is to breed special functional types of rice varieties rich in trace elements (special rice for short). A special type of rice that can produce rich nutrients. In order to explore the nutritional value of giant embryo rice, the contents of 17 mineral elements ((K, Ca, Fe, Se, Zn, Cu, Na, Mn, Mg, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, As, Cd, Ag, Al)) in 5 kinds of giant embryo rice (white giant embryo, giant japonica-GB-12, giant japonica-GB-11 and giant japonica-GB-5, giant japonica-GB-1) were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. After comparison with ordinary rice, it was found that the content of the same mineral element in different samples has a large variation, suggesting that different rice varieties have different absorption, transformation and storage efficiency of the same element; different giant embryo brown rice in some mineral elements (such as Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) are extremely low in content and almost undetectable. Meanwhile, the brown rice of giant embryo rice has a more powerful enrichment effect on some mineral elements, which means that embryo rice has a unique advantage in cultivating new rice varieties with special functions rich in minerals.

Distribution of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora in the Soil Around the Wells and Springs in Yaounde and Environs: Role of Some Abiotic Factors of the Medium

Authors: Asi Quiggle Atud ; Ajeagah Gideon Aghaindum ; Okoa Amougou Thérèse Nadège
Pages: 41-49
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.66.41.49
This study, developed in the Centre Region of Cameroon, made it possible to identify the consequences responsible of soil vulnerability. Chemical and biological analysis of soil samples collected near wells and springs during the short rainy season were carried out. The results show that the pH and electrical conductivity values decrease with the depth respectively 6.11 CU and 127.47 µS/cm at the surface (0cm) followed by 5.52 CU and 69.32 µS/cm at 50 cm depth. The hydraulic conductivity shows that the soil is moderately permeable (10-5m/s). Protozoa oocysts were observed using an Olympus CK2 inverted microscopy at 40X objective using Zinc sulphate flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. The distribution of oocysts decreases with depth. At the surface of the soil (0cm) the densities of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora are respectively 123 oocysts/100g and 50 oocysts/100g. At 25cm depth, the densities of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora are respectively 36 oocysts /100g and 6 oocysts /100g. At 50cm depth the densities of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora are respectively 16 oocysts/100g and 3 oocysts/100g. Infiltration of oocysts may be favored by Hydraulic conductivity and obstructed by acidic pH of the soil. The contamination of these different depth layers would be a risk of contamination of groundwater.