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Volume 7 Number 3 July 2021

Effects of Antibiotics on Haemostatic Parameters during Pregnancy

Authors: Iyevhobu Kenneth Oshiokhayamhe ; Amaechi R. A. ; Turay A. A. ; Okobi T. J. ; Usoro E. R. ; Ken-Iyevhobu B. A.
Pages: 57-62
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.73.57.62
An estimated 50,000 Nigerian women die each year from complications of pregnancy and childbirth, accounting for 10% of global estimates of pregnancy maternal death with about 2% resulting from drug induction. This cross-sectional study sets out to evaluate the Prothrombin time test (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time test (aPTT) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Platelet count (PC) of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oredo Health Centre in Benin City, Edo State. A total number of 130 subjects comprising 100 pregnant women and 30 non-pregnant women were recruited for the study. Prothrombin time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Platelet count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) were studied using standard manual methods. The prothrombin time (sec) of the pregnant women 1st trimester (19.12±0.77b), 2nd trimester (19.90±1.02 b) and 3rd trimester (19.66±0.56 b), activated partial thromboplastin time (sec)  1st trimester (44.02±1.17 b), 2nd trimester (47.72±1.47 b) and 3rd trimester (45.88±1.10b), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm/hr) 1st trimester (24.37±3.04 a), 2nd trimester (37.83±4.53 a) and 3rd trimester (43.25±5.24 a) and platelet count (X109/L) 1st trimester (248.29±23.18a), 2nd trimester (236.33±13.84 b) and 3rd trimester (239.10±16.07 a) were significantly higher than the prothrombin time (sec) 16.48±0.81 a, activated partial thromboplastin time (sec) 36.53±1.42 a, ESR (mm/hr) 29.83±4.14 a and platelet count (X109/L) 201±9.54 an of the non-pregnant women (p<0.05). The ESR (mm/hr) of the 3rd trimester (43.25±5.24) was observed to be significantly higher than that of the 1st trimester (24.37±3.04) and 2nd trimester (37.83±4.53) (p<0.05). Our investigation showed that antibiotics in pregnancy have a deleterious effect on PT, ESR, APTT and PC studied. We recommend that pregnant women should be given due attention throughout the course and events of pregnancy to prevent or reduce the risk of thrombotic episodes and possible disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with resultant better maternity/child safety and health outcome and educated on the effects of antibiotics to pregnancy.

A Seminar Paper on the Review of Five well-known Medicinal Plants Used in Ethiopia

Authors: Gadissa Melkamu Bulcha
Pages: 51-56
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.73.51.56
The indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants appeared when humans started and learned how to use the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. The various literature available shows the significant role of medicinal plants in primary health care delivery in Ethiopia (about 70% of humans and 90% of livestock population) depend on traditional plant medicine. This is similar to many developing countries, particularly with those countries in Sub-saharan Africa. Medicinal plants provide a vital contribution to human and livestock health care. This seminar review was an attempt to present five medicinal plants (citrus lemon, caricapapaya, Moringa stenopetala, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale).

The Distribution of Mineral Elements and Protein in Soft Rice was Determined and Analyzed by SEM-EDS Technology

Authors: Bo Peng ; Xiao-Rui Ma ; Wen-Ting Cui ; Xia-Yu Tian ; Chao Dong ; Cuifeng Tang ; Xin Xiang A ; Fang Yang ; Yan-Ming Zhang ; Meng-Yang Zheng ; Ya-Qin Huang ; Yan-Yang Sun ; Rui-Hua Pang ; Quan-Xiu Wang ; Wei Zhou ; Hong-Yu Yuan
Pages: 39-50
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.73.39.50
Soft rice is a kind of high-quality rice between glutinous rice and sticky rice. It has low amylose content, crystal clear grains, sweet taste, soft glutinous, and is suitable for cooking and porridge. Chalkiness in soft rice is a white opaque part formed by loose endosperm. It is an important character that affects the appearance quality, processing, and cooking quality of rice, and also an important limiting factor that restricts the standard rate of high-quality rice in China. The combination of scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) can be used for in-depth analysis of rice, visualization, and quantitative analysis of element distribution in rice. The results showed that there were many kinds of mineral elements in soft rice seeds, among which C and O were the most abundant, followed by N and P, and Mg, Al, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, and Zn were less. The contents of C, N, P, and S in the non-chalky area were significantly higher than those in the chalky area. Especially N and S were the best indicators of protein, and the contents in the chalky area were higher than those in the non-chalky area. It means that the protein content in the chalky part of soft rice seed is less than that in the non-chalky part, which affects the nutritional quality of soft rice. Therefore, the results of this study laid a solid foundation for the in-depth analysis of the distribution of mineral elements and protein in soft rice and their effects on the quality of soft rice, which also provided important information for the cultivation of new high-quality rice varieties in the future.

Public Health Implications of Some Heavy Metals Contained in Palm Wines of Wilberforce Island Area, Nigeria

Authors: Glory Richard ; Felix Okponanabofa Youkparigha ; Ayobami Omozemoje Aigberua ; Sylvester Chibueze Izah ; Boma Braide
Pages: 34-38
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/jbr.73.34.38
This study evaluated the heavy metals hazard of palm wine from Raphia species sold in Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State Nigeria. Triplicate samples were obtained from six locations in Wilberforce Island and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The health risk associated with heavy metal contaminants was calculated following standard protocol. Results of heavy metals in palm wine were in the range of 0.157–0.319mg/L, 0.554–0.983mg/L, 0.000– 0.2289mg/L, and 0.123–0.5299mg/L for zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper respectively. There were significant discrepancies (p < 0.05) in the palm wine samples across various locations for the different parameters. Metals such as cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were not detected in palm wine, indicating that toxicity related to them is non-existent. However, zinc, cobalt, and copper were observed at low concentrations, while iron levels exceeded regulatory comparison. This is possibly an indication of iron-rich soils which are prevalent in the area. It may also have resulted from activities releasing this metal within the study area. Average daily intake and hazard quotient and health index (< 1) indicate no adverse acute health effect. To forestall potential health risks associated with heavy metals in palm wine, there is a need to regularly evaluate heavy metal concentrations.