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Volume 6 Number 5 May 2020

Consumer Characteristics and Consumption Analytics of Frequently Consumed Food Categories in Mining Areas

Authors: Ekpor Anyimah–Ackah ; Isaac W. Ofosu ; Herman Erick Lutterodt ; Godfred Darko
Pages: 39-52
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ajls.65.39.52
The WHO/FAO have requested data on food consumption to better understand the increasing toxicological results of foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to determine the food consumption characteristics of the consumers living in small-scale mining areas. Commonly consumed food crops of each category: fruit, cereals, vegetables, legumes and root tubers were selected. In all, 308 consumers were sampled using a one-week dietary recall tool and a stratified sampling method of the consumers. The @Risk Microsoft add-in was used to analyze the data. The results show that the adolescents (10-17 years) consumed cowpea (233.90 g/day) and cassava (666.96g/day) at a relatively higher level compared to children (3-9 years) and adults (18-64 years). Likewise, adults consumed yam (136.65g/day), maize (1739.37g/day), rice (1272.40g/day), pineapple (184.97g/day) and watermelon (656.55g/day) at a relatively higher level compared to children and adolescents. On the contrary, whereas children generally consumed lower quantities of food, they presented higher exposure frequency to cowpea (364 days/year), root tubers (36-364 days/year) and grains (286-364 days/year) compared to adults and adolescents. Both adolescent and adult population subgroups presented higher exposure frequency to vegetables (364 days/year) relative to children (104-364 days/year). The findings further show that, in increasing order rice and maize are the most consumed crops. The adult population subgroup, in the study area may be vulnerable to contaminants in maize grains than other dishes categories due to the high mass consumed and high exposure duration. Children may be vulnerable to contaminants in maize grains because of the high exposure frequency.

Effect of Water Stress, Nitrogen and Organic Manure Fertilizer on Nitrogen Use Efficiency Indices and Grain Protein Content of Wheat in a Semi-arid Environment

Authors: Badr ELdin Abdelgadir Mohamad Ahmed ; Faisal Elgasim Ahmed ; Hanadi Ibrahim Dessougi
Pages: 34-38
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ajls.65.34.38
A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 on the Demonstration Farm of the Faulty of Agriculture, University of Kassala at New Half. Nitrogen use efficiencies (i.e. agronomic AE, internal IE, physiological PE and recovery RE) and grain protein content were investigated at different level of watering regimes and organic manure application of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The watering regime treatments were irrigation every 7, 14 and 21 days, and the nitrogen fertilizer levels were zero, 43, 86 kg N ha-1 without or with 4 tons of chicken manure ha-1. Frequent irrigation, addition of high N level and organic manure significantly increased AE, IE, PE, RE and grain protein content compared to their respective treatments. Mixing of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer increased AE, IE and RE but resulted in a slightly increase in PE than both treatments when they were added solely. Further, the magnitude of organic manure on AE, IE, RE and grain protein content was significantly greater under normal watering regime. Wheat plants under optimum conditions (frequent watering, high N level plus organic manure) used N, as indicated by AE, PE, IE and RE, more efficiently than under other treatment combination.