Volume 5 Number 9 September 2019

Bioaccumulation of Pesticides in Aquatic System of Edku Lake, Egypt: An Approach for Risk Associated With Fish Consumption

Authors: Abbassy M. A. ; Abdel-Halim K. Y. ; El-Meseiry M. A.
Pages: 61-69
Monitoring of some organochlorines (OCs) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues in Edku Lake during 2015-2016 have been determined in water, sediment and Tilapia fish to find out the extent of pesticides contamination and bioaccumulation into the lake. Pesticide residues were determined using gas chromatography equipped with appropriate detectors. The mean residues of ∑BHC, ∑DDT, total OCs, and OPs in water samples were 68.43, 14.17, 118.3 and 138.46 ppb, respectively. The corresponding residues in sediments were 8343.26, 5307.59, 21402.83 and 267.66 ppb, respectively. In fish muscles, the mean residues of ∑BHC, ∑DDT, methoxychlor and total OCs were 2513.56, 1916.85, 46175.05, and 57592.40 ppb, respectively. The corresponding values in fish gills were 3565.44, 16014.96, 13182.44, 35645.15 and 3318.10 ppb, respectively. Sum of BHC and DDT were the mostly detected in muscle samples accounting for 1593.60 and 916.53 ppb, respectively. Regarding bioaccumulation of examined pesticides, bioconcentration factor (BCF) was estimated to be in range 7.96-40701.50 for water/muscle ratio of OCs. In case of BCF for water/gills, the values ranged from 16.72 to 237090.17. BCF values obtained from ratio sediment/muscle or sediment/gills not exceeded than 100. These concepts indicate that OCs induced bioaccumulation in fish tissues may attributed to predicted risks associated with this kind of consumption. All findings represent concept that, Edku Lake represents reservoir of all pollutants coming from north governorates e.g. El-Behira.

Nutrient Profile and in vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Flamboyant (Delonix regia) Seeds Subjected to Different Processing Methods for Sustainable Ruminant Production in Humid Tropic

Authors: Lamidi Akeem Atanda ; Evien E. E. ; Ogunkunle Tajudeen
Pages: 55-60
This study assessed the nutrient profile and in vitro fermentation characteristics of flamboyant (Delonix regia) seeds subjected to different processing methods for sustainable ruminant production in humid tropic. Eight (8) different processing methods formed the experimental treatments, namely T1 (raw/control); T2 (roasted); T3 (soaked in water for 24 hours); T4 (soaked in water for 48 hours); T5 (soaked in rumen liquor for 24 hours); T6 (soaked in rumen liquor for 48 hours); T7 (parboiled for 45 minutes.) and T8 (cooked 45 minutes. The treatments were replicated three times in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Data obtained on the nutrient profile and in vitro fermentation characteristics was subjected to a One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using statistical analysis system (SAS) version 9. The mean was separated using Duncan’s New multiple Range Test (DNMRT). The results showed that there was a significant (P<0.05) effects of processing methods on crude fibre (CF) and calcium  (Ca) contents of the processed seeds with the values ranges from 2.97 % in T4 to 4.59% in T8 for crude fibre (CF). Similar (P>0.05) contents was recorded for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), phosphorous (P) and iron (Fe) content across the experimental treatments, the contents ranges from 88.41 – 89.51%, 20.59 – 21.45%, 2.24 – 3.05%, 4.25 – 4.89% 38.89 – 39.78%, 25.14 – 25.47%, 3.7 – 4.0%, 62.90 – 66.50mg/kg for DM, CP, EE, ash, NDF, ADF, P and Fe content respectively. Significant (P<0.05) different was observed for methane gas (CH4) production, with values ranges from 15.33 – 29.33 (ml). Similar value was observed for fermentation efficiency (FE), short chain fatty acids (SCFA), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and metabolisible energy (ME) across the experimental treatments and the values ranges from 0.37 – 0.67, 0.75 – 1.02 Mmol, 61.92 – 68.61% and 7.38 – 9.55 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Conclusively, irrespective of the processing methods flamboyant seeds had adequate nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of ruminants except crude fibre (CF) which can be fortified with roughages or fibrous feedstuffs. The in vitro fermentation characteristics showed that the seed has potentials as a feed resource to support ruminant animal production especially in the dry season.