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Volume 1 Number 1 December 2015

Study on Home Based Farming: Inputs and Diversity

Authors: Md. Shafiqul Islam
Pages: 24-30
Home based farming is a notable practice in the study area. Farmers grew diverse product by using locally available low cost or zero cost inputs from their own sources, neighboring people or local market. The effort made them self-reliant through farm profitability. They were used family members for their farm production by creating self-employment. Few problems were identified including marketing, low price, storage loss and lack of fair price. 

Embryogenic Callus Induction from Mature Embryos of Sorghum Genotypes

Authors: Rania S. El Sanousi ; Sayeda O. ELhiweris
Pages: 20-23
Sorghum bicolor is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world. Sorghum is considered to be one of the most recalcitrant species among the cereals for in vitro response and genetic transformation. In this study four sorghum genotypes were examined for their ability for callus induction. The cultures were initiated from mature embryos. The highest number of somatic embryos was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2mgl-1 2, 4 D. Highest frequency of embryogenic callus formation was observed in the genotype Wad Ahmed.

Assessment of the Aquatic Macrophytes and Algae of the Fosu Lagoon, Cape Coast. Ghana

Authors: Felix Jerry Akpabey ; Ruth Amole
Pages: 14-19
The Fosu Lagoon serves as a major ecological, economic and cultural (religious) significance to the inhabitants of the community. It provides livelihoods for local fishermen, as well as habitat for rare flora and fauna, is of key importance to the local climate and provided recreational opportunities for the inhabitants of Cape Coast. In recent years, increased human activities have led to deterioration of both fresh and coastal waters in many regions of the world. The Environmental Protection Agency of Ghana have rated the Fosu Lagoon as one such lagoon and is considered the third most polluted lagoon in Ghana after the Korle and Chemu lagoons. Climate change variability has been associated with declining water resources among other factors. Climate change studies in Ghana have shown that major basins in the country are already experiencing water stress and with increasing environmental deterioration, limited water availability and pollution would have tremendous negative impact on aquatic ecosystems including coastal waters such as lagoons. The study revealed that the Fosu Lagoon is covered with mats of mixed vegetation (with Paspalum vaginatum and Typha domingensis dominating) which grow around the banks and over shallow sections of the Lagoon and parts of the landing sites. The weeds contribute to health problems by providing suitable habitats, refuge and food for vectors of water-borne and water related diseases (snails Biomphalaria sp. and Bulinus sp. for intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis and mosquitoes for malaria). Other macrophytes present include: Pistia stratiotes, Nymphaea sp., Eleocharis, Ipomoea aquatica, and the duckweeds. The death and decay of the plant matter is leading to the rapid silting up of the Lagoon and therefore a reduction in the volume of water to be stored as well as the quality thereby decreasing the oxygen content and inadvertently affecting the fauna through oxygen demand reduction. It is therefore being recommended that stringent control of anthropogenic pressures through integrated catchment management will ensure the restoration of the Fosu Lagoon.

Assessment of Bovine Raw Milk Obtained from Selected Farms in Zaria Environs Nigeria for Toxigenic Strain of Escherichia Coli

Authors: Agunbiade T. B ; Umoh V. J. ; Whong C. M. Z. ; Ella E. E
Pages: 8-13
The presence of E. coli in food or water became accepted as indicative of recent faecal contamination and the possible presence of pathogens. The study therefore aims at detecting the presence of E.coli and E. coli O157 and an indication of quality assessment of the raw milk samples sold to the open market. A total of 199 composite milk samples and 13 bulk milk samples were collected from selected farms in Zaria environs and analyzed for total aerobic and coliform counts using standard cultural methods. The total bacterial and were more than 105 in 95.48% while total coliform counts was more than 100 cell/ml in 47.24% of the composite milk analysed. All the bulk samples collected had 100% bacterial and 69.2% coliform contamination. The cleaned teats had a mean of 3.03�2.13log10cfu/ml which was not significantly different (t=1.574, p=0.117) when compared to the count obtained from the teats that were unclean (3.12�1.97log10cfu/ml). However, total coliform counts of composite milk samples from animals with cleaned teats had a mean of 1.42�1.05log10cfu/ml was significantly lower (t=6.418, p-0.001) than the counts of milk obtained from cows with unclean teats (2.78�1.95log10cfu/ml) The incidence of Escherichia coli in the milk samples was 7.5%, when isolates were tested for enterotoxin production using the VET-RPLA kit, 14.3% of the isolates were found to possess the heat-labile toxin. All the isolates were found to be susceptible to Ceftriaxone and Ammox-Clav (n=15; %=100), one isolate was resistant to gentamycin, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol (n=15, 6.7%). Eight isolates were found resistant to nalixidic (n=15, 53.3%) and nine were found to be resistant to Sulphamethazole and Trimethoprim (n=15, 60%).

Aneuploidy of Urethane in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells and Potential Recovery with Lupin Water Extract

Authors: Ezzat I. Aboul-ela
Pages: 1-7
The incidence of in vivo urethane-induced chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and aneuploidy was examined in male mice.  Single oral administration by gavage with urethane (0.5 and 1 g/kg) caused a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and spermatocyte cells, and statistical significant in SCE induction. The clastogenic effect observed was dose- and time- dependent.  Aneuploidy was observed clearly with the high dose recording a significant value. Administration of lupin water extract at 5000 ppm/mice/day (added with the drinking water) reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, but still at the significant values (P, 0.001) while that administration of lupin extract elevated the aneuploidy induced with urethane. It can be concluded that urethane is a strong clastogenic  and weak aneugenic agent when administered  orally  and administration of lupin water extract can be elevateing the aneugenic property of urethane.