Journal of Agriculture and Crops
Online ISSN: 2412-6381
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Print ISSN: 2413-886X
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 8 Number 3 July 2022
Livelihood Activities, Climate Change and Water Resources Availability in the Lower Cross River State, Nigeria
Authors: Eneji Chris-Valentine Ogar ; Alawa David Adie ; Udumo Bassey Obeten et. al.
This study aims to assess how human livelihood activities influence climate change and water resource availability in the Northern part of Cross River State, Nigeria. Majorly, the paper looked at how human livelihoods activities like deforestation for agricultural expansion, carving, and timber, exploitation of non-timber forest products, sand mining, and faulty agricultural practices among others had influenced the removal of forest vegetation cover, how these activities also influenced the reduction in rainfall and subsequent paving of ways for climate change. These activities contributed greatly to increasing ambient temperature orchestrating carbon accumulation in the surrounding environment and reduction in the amount of rainfall within the study area. Using both soft and hardware computer applications including German 12 handheld GPS, and Integrated Land and Water Information System (ILWIS), were used for data collection. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected for the study. The GIS information software package was used to manipulate and perform feature identification, recognition, classification, calculation, and ground-truthing. A structured questionnaire was also used to collect data on some livelihood activities, the influence of livelihoods activities on water availability, and climate change among others. Secondary data set include the use of satellite imageries of Bekwarra, this was acquired from the Nigeria Center for Remote Sensing and Nigerian Meteorological Center, Jos for 1987- 2017. After analysis, it was found that the forest vegetation cover is fast disappearing, the built-up area had increased and the forest and water bodies are shrunken. Ambient temperature and carbon accumulation had seriously increased, while rainfall has reduced seriously leading to climate change and reduced water availability. It was recommended among others that tree planting and afforestation, alternative sources of livelihood that are feasible, sustainable, cheap, and practicable should be introduced to reduce pressure on the natural ecosystem.
Smart Agro-Clustering Based on the Chain "Education-Science-Business" for Sustainable Development
Authors: Iryna Bashynska ; Yaroslav Kichuk ; Serhiy Danylyuk et. al.
The rapid development of technologies has made their adjustments in absolutely all universe processes. The accelerating pace of technology development, and constant crisis phenomena direct all interested parties towards clustering. The study is devoted to studying theoretical and methodological developments regarding clustering, the analysis of the current state of the course of sustainable development chosen by Ukraine and the achievement of goals within its framework. A special place is given to the aspect of financial regulation of creating an agricultural cluster. The analysis showed the need to improve the established clustering chain by adding schools as cluster members at the initial stage. The authors proposed and clearly presented a scheme of interaction between stakeholders in a Smart-cluster and described why this agrarian cluster could be considered smart. The resulting synergistic effect of creating a cluster is not only in increasing the efficiency of its work as a whole compared to the efficiency of individual participants but also in the mutual strengthening of competitive positions. To improve the financial regulation of creating a smart agrarian cluster, the authors proposed an algorithm that would allow the most efficient allocation of money depending on priorities. Forecasting needs to be reviewed periodically because it is planned that at the initial stage, the smart cluster will be financed by “locomotives”, i.e. profitable industries/enterprises; in the future, financing will fall on the shoulders of promising highly profitable non-resource high-tech industries/enterprises.
Heavy Metal Contamination and Health Risk of Soils and Vegetables Grown Near a Gold Mine Area: A Case Study of Barberton, South Africa
Authors: Ayanda N. Shabalala ; Phumelele D. Ngwenya ; Moses Timana
Pollution from mining operations has a direct impact on agricultural production and can lead to potential health risks because of the accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables. Vegetables and soil samples collected from Thaba Nchu farm located near a gold mining site were analysed to determine the concentration of heavy metals. Soil and vegetable samples were digested using the wet method and heavy metals were analysed using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique. The soil-to-plant Transfer Factors (TF) and Health Risk Index (HRI) were calculated. The highest mean levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Cu were detected in spinach while the highest mean level of Zn was found in onion. Iron levels in lettuce, spinach, beetroot, onion, and carrot ranged from 2203 to 3404 mg/kg which was above the permissible limits (450 mg/kg) recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization–World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). The concentration of Pb (0.4 mg/kg) and Cr (13.8 mg/kg) in spinach exceeded the permissible level recommended by FAO/WHO of 0.3 mg/kg and 1.3 mg/kg, respectively. The metal transfer factors in vegetables were in the order: Cd>Pb>Cu>Fe>Ni>Co>Zn>Cr>Mn. The daily intake and HRI of Mn and Fe in vegetables were above safe levels. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. These results suggest that the consumption of vegetables grown on the study site could pose danger to human health. High heavy metal content in crops was attributed to the accumulation of Fe and Mn, which are the major ores extracted from the mining activities in the study area. Given the potential health risks, regular monitoring of heavy metal contamination in the soils and crops is recommended.
Molecular Assessment of Established Clonal Propagated Mulberry (Morus nigra L.)
Authors: Ismail A. Ismail ; El Dessoky S. Dessoky ; Attia O. Attia ; Osama M. Saleh
Mulberry (Morus Sp.) is one of the economically important trees cultivated for the tasteful fruits, its several pharmaceutically important chemicals potential, timber, cosmetic and in silk industry for its foliage, also in various molecular breeding applications. The origins of most cultivated mulberry varieties are believed to be in the area of China-Japan and in the Himalaya foothills. and it now has a very wide distribution range in Asia-Europe (from Korea to Spain, including China, India, Central Asia, and Near East); in Africa (North and East Africa) and in America (from the U.S.A. to Argentina, including Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Brazil). In Saudi Arabia, Mulberry grown well and spread in different places such as Taif Province (El Shafa region), Eastern region; Al-Ehsaa Province and some southern areas. Nodal explants of Morus nigra were clonally propagated in vitro for plant regeneration. Auxiliary shoot buds have been promoted in Murashige and Scoog (MS) media in a variety of cultural contexts. The largest number of shoots (13.00 ± 0.47) with an average length of 2.00 ± 0.47 cm was initially obtained from a medium containing 2.0 mg / L N6-benzyladin (BA) and 3% sucrose. Recurrent subcultures provided the highest number of seedlings (approximately 29.30) for excavation after the fourth passage. Seedlings were rooted in 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg / 1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Successfully, about 90% of the plantlets acclimatized. Along with the determination of the genetic variations between three mulberry genotypes including two cultivated accessions (Morus alba) and one wild genotype (M. nigra) utilizing inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship of mulberry germplasm collection have been studied. All ISSR markers used in this study revealed higher genetic diversity in the wild species comparing with cultivated species. ISSR matrices reported that the mean genetic similarity coefficient was 0.7677 for all mulberry genotypes. Although some differences have been observed, much similarity has been obtained in dendrogram topology. Cluster analysis of the ISSR using UPGMA software revealed that wild species were genetically distinct. The correlation coefficients of similarity for the ISSR used are statistically important. The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCA) for ISSR data also supports its UPGMA clustering. The average number of genetic variations recorded in mulberry genotypes was 0.287±0.096. Dendrogram (Unweighted peer group method analysis) classifies mulberry accessions into two main groups; Admissions collected from the western area of Taif, and the other comprised two sub-clusters including one isolate, i.e., M nigra, a collection from Al shafa. Contains access to another sub-cluster southwest regions of Taif, which belong to Morus nigra wild growing. These accessions of mulberry were found to be genetically similar to north and southwest Taif Province. These results have significant implications for improving the mulberry germ plasma characterization, conservation and investigates of the genetic diversity among the mulberry species grown in Taif governorate and to establish a micro-propagation system as germplasm conservation to preserve the assets of local mulberry and thus develops an easy and effective method to identify native genotypes in a limited space and time frame.
Impact of Gelatin, Clove Oil and Olive Oil on Storability and Blue Mold of Anna Apple Caused by Penicillium expansum Under Cold Storage Conditions
Authors: Fatma K. M. Shaaban ; Thauria M. M. Abo-El Wafa ; Thanaa Sh. M. Mahmoud
This experiment was carried out during the 2020 and 2021 seasons to evaluate the physiological and pathological effects of edible coating with gelatin 8%, clove oil 1%, and olive oil 1% separately, or gelatin incorporated with clove oil or olive oil, on maintaining quality and control blue mold development caused by Penicillium expansum on Anna apple fruits under cold storage conditions. In vitro, both oils were evaluated on linear growth of Penicillium expansum at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1%. Clove oil at 1% had a high efficacy at inhibiting the mycelial growth of Penicillium expansum with 77.8%. The results showed that all studied coating treatments were effective in controlling blue mold in Anna apple during cold storage for 4 weeks in artificial infection and 12 weeks in natural infection compared to control. Also, all coating treatments had a significant effect on delaying changes in fruit weight loss percentage, color values (L* and h°), hardness, respiration rate, TSS: acid ratio, total phenolic content (TPC), and activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalysis (CAT), especially coating by gelatin mixed with olive oil. Therefore, it could be recommended that coating Anna apple fruits by gelatin 8% mixed with (clove oil 1% or olive oil 1%) to improve their quality and storability during cold storage.
Influence of Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizer Formulations on Rice Yield in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana
Authors: Abdulai Fuseini ; Badii Kongyeli Benjamin
Low soil fertility has been a major constraint to the increased and sustainable rice production in the Guinea savanna zone of Ghana. Studies were conducted in four locations to evaluate the yield of rice under different fertilization regimes. The fields were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications for each fertilizer treatment. Data were collected on grain yield and seed mass, and subjected to analysis of variance, with treatment means separated at a 5% level of significance. Significant improvement in rice grain yield was realized in all study locations due to the fertilizer treatments. Grain yield improvement of up to 4,280 kg/ha was obtained. The best two performing fertilization regimes in improving rice grain yield were UNIK-CLB+AMI and ACT-CLB+AMI. In general, rice grain yield among treatments containing CropLiftBio (CLB) foliar treatments was statistically similar. Application of ACT+URE or UNIK+ACT with no the CropLiftBio foliar supplementation consistently demonstrated lower grain yields in rice compared to the other fertilizer treatments. Rice grain mass was, however, not significantly impacted by the fertilization regimes in all study locations. From the results of this study, Activa fertilizers used as basal treatment was unsuitable for rice production in the ecology as these generally provided lower grain yields. For maximum grain yield in rice, UNIK (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizer was the most recommended. The basal application of UNIK at 125 kg/ha and topdressing with Amidas at 125 kg/ha with CropLiftBio foliar supplementation will provide better yields for farmers than applying any of the formulations with Activa as a topdress.
Improving Accounting and Management of Settlements with Foreign Suppliers in the Context of Global Digitalization on the Example of Agricultural Enterprise
Authors: Natalia Selivanova ; Valentyna Borkovska ; Petro Mykytyuk et. al.
In the article, the authors developed proposals for improving the accounting and management of settlements with counterparties at importing agricultural enterprises in the context of global digitalization, namely: proposed analytical accounts for accounting settlements with suppliers at importing agricultural enterprises, which will help control accounts payable, the time of its payment and help to plan agreements with suppliers and contractors; considered in detail the accounting of payments to contractors, namely the accounting of discounts from foreign suppliers on agricultural raw materials received by the enterprise, when it is provided after customs clearance of goods; developed methodical bases of management of settlements with contractors at the enterprises-importers in the conditions of global digitalization; developed and visually presented the information base of control of settlements with contractors (suppliers) in the conditions of global digitalization; analyzed the main control functions implemented in the application solutions of various software products presented on the market of Ukraine, presented an analysis of the solution of internal control problems with the help of applied products and proposed the main areas of improvement of control elements. In general, the rational organization of accounting and management of suppliers and the state of settlements with them help to strengthen contractual and settlement discipline, fulfilment of obligations to supply products in a given range and quality, increase responsibility for compliance with payment discipline, reduce receivables and payables, accelerate receivables and, consequently, to improve the financial condition of the enterprise.
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Soil Moisture Levels on the Performance of Drought-Tolerant Maize on Ferric Luvisol and Rhodic Ferralsol Soils
Authors: A. R. Adebayo ; E. T. Sebetha
Globally, water and nitrogen have been known as the most important resources that significantly impact crop productivity. This study assessed the response of Water Efficient Maize for Africa, WEMA3127 variety to different soil moisture levels, and nitrogen fertilizer rates on Ferric Luvisol and Rhodic Ferralsol soils. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different N fertilizer and soil moisture levels on the growth, yields and water-use efficiency of the water-efficient maize for Africa (WEMA) variety on two distinct soils. The experiment was designed as a completely randomized design with three replicates and used a factorial design with a 5 x 2 x 2 design. Treatments comprised five N fertilizer rates (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg N/ha), two soil moisture levels (45 and 100% field capacity), and two soil types (Ferric Luvisol and Rhodic Ferralsol). Plant height, chlorophyll content and total dry matter weight as growth attributes, grain yield, total biological yield and water-use efficiency parameters were determined. The tallest plant height (283.33 cm) was recorded in Ferric Luvisol supplied with 240 kg N/ha at 100% field capacity. The highest grain yield (136.8 g /pot) and water-use efficiency (1.94%) were obtained in Rhodic Ferralsol treated with 180 kg N/ha at 100% and 45% field capacity (FC), respectively. A linear relationship was obtained between N fertilizer rates and the grain yield (R2 = 0.91) and between total dry matter and grain yield (R2 = 0.51). The results showed that the growth and water-use efficiency of WE3127 maize variety was better on Rhodic Ferralsol than in Ferric Luvisol.
The Function of Amino Acid Transporters in Plant
Authors: Bo Peng ; Qing-Xi Zhang ; Duan Wang et. al.
Amino acids are a kind of nutrient element necessary for plant growth and development. Through the participation of amino acid transporters, the transport of amino acids between aboveground and underground parts of plants and the loading of amino acids from xylem to phloem can be completed. At present, many genes encoding plant amino acid transporters have been isolated and cloned, but little is known about the functions of different amino acid transporters and their effects on plants. Therefore, this paper reviewed the role of amino acid transporters in plants from three aspects: the classification, isolation, and cloning of amino acid transporters genes and the functional research of amino acid transporters, to provide references for the utilization of amino acid transporters in plants.
Food Sustainability and Security, Aftermath of Vegetable Production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Authors: Osuji E. E. ; Onyemauwa C. S. ; Obasi I. O. et. al.
Vegetable crops are increasingly being acknowledged as a prerequisite for food sustainability, nutrition, and security. The study examined food sustainability and security, the aftermath of vegetable production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaires from 286 vegetable crop farmers sampled across the three zones of the state; Ebonyi North, Ebonyi South, and Ebonyi Central using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools, net returns model, analysis of variance, and ordinary least squares multiple regression techniques. The result showed that the majority of the vegetable farmers were females, married, educated, experienced, and belonged to cooperative societies. Vegetables such as Fluted pumpkin, 5944.70kg, waterleaf, 5802.49kg, tomato, 4498.83kg, spinach, 5789.90kg, okra, 5634.71kg, green pepper, 4739.02kg, and okazi leaf, 5856.23kg, dominated the vegetable production in the state. High net revenue, of N275461.93, was obtained in Ebonyi North relative to Ebonyi South and Ebonyi Central. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) result showed that there are significant differences in net returns of vegetable crops across the three agricultural zones of the state. Age, gender, household size, education, farming experience, farm size, and extension contacts hugely influenced vegetable crop production in the state. Inadequate capital, 99.7%, land fragmentation, 99.3%, high cost of input materials, 98.6%, pests, and disease attacks, 98.0% and the problem of the storage facility, 98.3% were perceived as major production constraints influencing sustainable vegetable production in the state. The study recommended government full support to intensify vegetable crop production in the state due to its economic viability. This would guarantee adequate food sustainability and security in the state.