Volume 2 Number 8 August 2017
Effect of Seasonal Water Fluctuation of a Water Body on Antioxidant Activity of Selected Plants of Lower Phylum (A Case Study of Nche stream)
Authors: Duru M. K. C. ; Akubugwo E. I. ; Chinyere G. C. ; Alisa C. O. ; Nwaogwugwu J. C.
Effect of seasonal water fluctuation of a water body on antioxidant activity of selected plants of lower phylum using Nche stream as a case study was investigated using standard methods. Three plants of lower phylum (watercress, moss plant, and spirogyra) were selected and studied for both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Results obtained for levels of ascorbic acid (0.81-11.87 µmoles/g DW), glutathione (1.47-3.01µmoles/g DW) and proline (1.27-3.01 g/100g) non-enzymatic antioxidants and those of superoxide dismutase (289.19-615.85 µg/g protein), peroxidase (32.56-52.79 µg/g protein), and catalase (57.80-73.20µmoles/g DW) of enzymatic antioxidants were higher in dry season against rainy season. It has been noted that a slit difference in these indicators could be as result of enormous stress. The reduction in volume of water of the host stream in dry season may have resulted in increased concentration of the pollutants in the water body hence, inducing the plants to absorb more of the pollutants. This may have triggered more stress on the plants, which reflected on the levels of the observed stress indicators when compared to the indicators as observed in rainy season. This study has shown the seasonal water fluctuation of a water body on antioxidant activity of selected plants of lower phylum.
Physico-Chemical Properties and Elements Composition of Fixed oil, Seed Extract, of Jatropha curcus L. [Blue Nile State (Aldamazien)]
Authors: Christina Yacoub Ishak ; Elfatih A. Hassan ; Mohamed Ezeldin ; Mona Alnaeem
Jatropha curcus L seed oil has been extracted by mechanical pressing, physicochemical parameters of the extracted oil such as moisture content, ash content, density, refractive index, kinematic viscosity, saponification value, Iodine value, peroxide value and acid value have been carried out on the seed oil using American Oil Chemist Society  and Association of Official Analytical Chemists  standard methods. The organic compounds of Jatropha curcus L oil have been evaluated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry technique (GC/MS), elements composition of extracted oil has been determined using inductively coupled plasma technique (ICP). The extracted oil is non-edible because all physicochemical characteristics have been found to be out of permissible limits assigned by World Health Organization  for edible oils. A total of 34 organic compounds of Jatropha curcus L seed oil have been detected, besides there have been some new compounds that have not been previously reported. The elements composition concentrations that have been found in extracted oil are Na, Mg, Ca, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Al, As and Pb, these comply with WHO specification except the concentrations of Mg, Ni and As have been found to be 21.5, 0.1 and 2.872 ppm respectively.
Examination of Ionophore Properties of the 4- (6-Methoxy-1, 3-Dimetilizokinol-7-Yloxy) Phthalonitrile Compound for the Determination of Some Monovalent Cations
Authors: Omer Isildak
The goal of this work is the construction of ion sensitive electrodes with the use of 4- (6-methoxy-1, 3-dimetilizokinol-7-yloxy) phthalonitrile. The lifetime, response time, optimum working range and other response characteristics of these electrodes were also be investigated. The selectivity of the electrode towards the ion of the interest (Na+, K+, NH4+) was computed.
Post Flood Analysis of Heavy Metal Level in River Benue along Makurdi Metropolis, Nigeria
Authors: Ishaq S. Eneji ; Peter O. Onuwa ; Sola O. Oloruntoba
River water was sampled across various segments of the River within Makurdi town to ascertain the anthropogenic contribution of heavy metal contents, a day after the torrential flood of 2012, and analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric techniques. The mean concentration (mg/L) of the metals in sample sites were determined to be; Fe (0.46±0.1), Pb (0.03±0.01), Mn (0.002±0.002), Cr (0.02±0.01), Cd (0.001±0.001) and Zn (0.004±0.001). The results were compared with standards of WHO and EU recommended values for drinking water quality. It was found that Mn, Cr, Cd and Zn were below the WHO/EU limits while Fe and Pb were above recommended value. Statistical analysis shows that there is no significant difference observed for Fe, Mn, Cd and Zn between sites. However, Pb and Cr showed significant differences between sites. This shows that the metals are distributed at different points as a result of human activities, coupled with the impact of flood in their transport and solubility.