Volume 1 Number 2 November 2016
Trace Metals Uptake by Algae Species in Contaminated Water in Some Industrial Areas in Omdurman City, Sudan
Authors: Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani ; Ahmed Mohammed Elhassan
This research aimed to estimate the uptake trace metals (TMs) by the algae species which grow inside contaminated water in streams originating from some industrial areas in Omudrman city in Sudan. It also aimed to verify the possibility of making use of this phenomenon in bioremediation of environmental pollution. The flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the concentration of the selectedt metals in waste water and algal biomass of the phyla Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Euglnophyta and Bacillariophyta. The TMs studied in waste water and algal biomass were Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cr. The physical parameters studied were pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of waste water. The study covered during dry and rainy seasons 5 sites in Omdurman industrial area. Samples were collected, and digested in conc. acids mixture of 3:1 of HNO3 and HClO4 and analyzed for trace metals concentrations. The algal biomass was found to be more efficient for TMs uptake and accumulation. The phytoremediation by the mentioned algal biomass is a promising technique for the removing the TMs considered in the present study.
Evaluation of Apolipoprotein Profile and Cd4+ T Cell Count in Adult HIV Seropositives in Nauth Nnewi, South Eastern, Nigeria
Authors: I. P. Ezeugwunne ; C. C. Onyenekwe ; J. E. Ahaneku ; G. Ahaneku ; W. S. Nnaemeka ; S. C. Meludu
Aim: To determine the Apolipoprotein profile and CD4+ T cell count in adult HIV seropositive participants in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria. Methods: Blood samples collected from the 300 randomly recruited participants were used for HIV screening, CD4+ T cell count, Apolipoprotein A-1, A-11, B, C-11, C-111 and Apo E. Standard Laboratory methods were used for the analysis. Results: The results showed that the mean serum Apo A-11, Apo B, Apo C-11 and Apo E levels were significantly higher in symptomatic HIV participants not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with asymptomatic HIV participants at P< 0.05, in each case. But the mean serum Apo A-1, Apo C-111 and CD4+ T cell levels were significantly lower in symptomatic HIV participants not on ART compared with asymptomatic HIV participants at P< 0.05, in each case. Also, the mean serum Apo A-11, Apo B and Apo E levels were significantly higher in symptomatic HIV participants not on ART compared with HIV seronegative control subjects at P<0.05 respectively. However, the mean serum Apo A-1, Apo C-111 and CD4+ T cell levels were significantly lower in symptomatic HIV participants not on ART compared with asymptomatic HIV participants at P<0.05 in each case. Again, the mean serum Apo A-11, Apo B, Apo E were significantly higher in asymptomatic HIV participants compared with HIV seronegative control subjects at P<0.05 in each case. But the mean serum Apo A-1, Apo C-11 and CD4+ T cell levels were significantly lower in asymptomatic HIV participants compared with HIV seronegative control subjects at P<0.05 in each case.
Preparation, Characterization and Flame Retardancy of Expandable Graphite Modified by Ferric Hydroxide. Part I - Preparation and Characterization
Authors: Xiuyan Pang ; Xiuzhu Shi
A type of expendable graphite (EGFe) modified by ferric hydroxide was stepwise prepared through chemical oxidation and hydrolysis precipitation reaction. Its dilatability, crystal structure, main functional groups were all characterized. The synthesizing method of the EGFe with excellent flame retardancy for linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was optimized through L9(34) orthogonal experiment. Especially, the mass ratio of FeCl3 to normal expandable graphite (EG) prepared in advance with chemical oxidation method was 0.1:1, dosage of NH3·H2O with a wt% of 25% was controlled as 0.4 mL, the reaction lasted 2.5 h at room temperature, and the final drying temperature was 100°C. Characterizing results testified the EGFe kept a layer structure just like natural graphite, and the hydrolysis product of FeCl3 was Fe(OH)3, and it mainly covered on the outside surface of the EG. EGFe possessed a better dilatability and flame retardancy for LLDPE than the EG.
The Study of Thyroid Physiology Using 131I-Sodium-Iodide Uptake Measurements
Authors: Liakat Ali ; M. M. Haque ; M. R. Islam
The measurement of the radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) provides the most direct study of thyroid physiology by studying the rate of thyroidal accumulation, incorporation, and release of radioiodine. A total 69 subjects with a mean age of 34±13 years (range: 8-70 years) that include 70% females and 30% males, referred to the Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences (INMS), Rajshahi for RAIU measurement were evaluated to investigate their thyroid physiology. The uptake study consisted of oral administration of 3.7–7.4 MBq (100–200 μCi) of 131I as sodium-iodide was performed both at 2 hours and 24 hours. The Mean±SD of RAIU values for euthyroidism, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were found to be 6.3±3.4% at 2h and 9.9±6.8% at 24h, 1.8±0.8% at 2h and 4.2±2.6% at 24h, and 36.5±21.4% at 2h and 54.8±15.9% at 24h, respectively. The RAIU measured in the present study effectively indicate the status of the respective thyroid.
Preparation, Crystal Structure and Molecular Structure Studies and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis of (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(thiophen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one
Authors: N. Renuka ; K. Ajay Kumar ; N. K. Lokanath ; M. Prabhuswamy
Knoevenagel condensation of 2-acetylthiophene and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde in the presence of potassium hydroxide in methyl alcohol at room temperature afforded (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(thiophen-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one. The synthesised compound was characterized by 1H NMR, Mass spectral and X-ray diffraction studies. The title molecule (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(thiophen-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one is crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system with the space group P21. The unit cell axes along a, b and c measure 4.149 (6) Å, 10.038 (1) Å and 14.552 (2) Å respectively and the angle between axis a and c was 91.9 (2)°. The number of formula units Z in the unit cell was 2. The crystal and molecular structure of the title compound is stabilized by C—H •••O hydrogen bond interactions. The Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out to make it evident the presence of C—H •••O hydrogen bond interactions and to find the contributions of various inter molecular close contacts which stabilize the crystal lattice structure.