English Literature and Language Review
Online ISSN: 2412-1703
Print ISSN: 2413-8827
Print ISSN: 2413-8827
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 7 Number 1 March 2021
Listening Anxiety Experienced by English Language Learners: A Comparison between Iranian and Turkish Teacher Candidates
Authors: Elham Kavandi ; Nikou Davarpanah
This study focuses on the listening anxiety experienced by teacher candidates (TCs) in Iran and Turkey. Using different data collection methods, including two questionnaires, listening test, and semi-structured interviews, this study tried to investigate the factors behind Foreign Language Listening Anxiety (FLLA) among Iranian teacher candidates (TCs). The participants of the study in Iran context were 29 teacher candidates studying at BA level in English Language Teaching. All of the participants were asked to complete these two questionnaires with the background information regarding their age, gender, years of language study. The participants’ answers to FLLAS and FLCAS were analyzed with spss to obtain frequencies and percentages. The results were compared to the same study by Bekleyen. The findings revealed that Iranian TCs experienced a high level of FLLA compared to Turkish TCs and showed a significant positive correlation between FLLA and FLCA, which means that teacher candidates with higher levels of language anxiety tended to have higher levels of listening anxiety. In addition, interview data suggested that Iranian and Turkish participants’ FLLA mostly originated from the same source: inadequacy of past education in listening skill. Furthermore, practice was the most frequent strategy used by participants in these two countries to overcome this kind of anxiety.
Racism and Social Segregation in Maya Angelo’s “Caged Bird”
Authors: Khalil Bakheet Khalil Ismail
The main thrust of this paper is to examine the issue of racial segregation in Maya Angelou’s “Caged Bird” via exploring the poem in relation to the circumstances that typify life and existence in the African American context. An attempt is made to situate this poem within the heat of racism, oppression, and class discrimination as well as the search for black identity. The paper relies on New Historicism as the scope of exploration owing to the chunk of influence that history and society bears on African American writing. Then literary critical analysis is made to verify the different aspects of racism and social segregation as represented in the poem.
Measuring English Language Self-Efficacy: Psychometric Properties and Use
Authors: Do-Hong Kim ; Chuang Wang ; Ting Sun ; Lan Liu
This article provides an overview of existing instruments measuring self-efficacy for English language learning in both first and second language acquisition fields and their reliability and validity evidence. It also describes the development and use of the Questionnaire of English Language Self-Efficacy (QESE) scale, designed specifically for English language learners (ELLs), and presents an overview of the research findings from empirical studies related to its psychometric properties. A growing body of literature has begun to document encouraging evidence of ELL students’ self-efficacy belief measures and the utility of the QESE in particular. The information pertaining to the QESE is quite encouraging from measurement perspectives and fills the gap in the literature by providing a reliable and valid instrument to measure ELLs’ self-efficacy in various cultures. This paper concludes with evidence for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of the construct validity of the QESE. This paper contributes to the growing interest in these skills by reviewing the measures of self-efficacy in the field of second-language acquisition and the findings of empirical research on the development and use of a self-efficacy scale for ELLs.
The Impact of Error Analysis and Feedback in English Second Language Learning
Authors: Silvia Sánchez Calderón ; Marina Pacheco Plaza
This study examines written errors in a corpus of 30 compositions produced by 15 students of English as a second language (L2), whose first language (L1) is Spanish. Their ages range from 10 to 11. This paper identifies grammar errors as the most frequent due to L1’s interference in L2 learning. Positive, focused, indirect written feedback is proven to be the most effective, and the L1 seems to help the students to understand the teacher’s metalinguistic explanation to correct errors and avoid mistakes. These results provide insight into language learning given that they offer information regarding the teaching practice.
Arousing the Discourse Awareness in College English Reading Class
Authors: Jinxiu Jing ; Zhengping Zeng
Reading without proper guidance from the perspective of discourse analysis will be a challenge and torture for English readers. However, most college students are suffering from this sort of tedious reading dilemma due to a sense of failure and anxiety as a result of an inefficient teaching approach. In this paper, the author tries to combine discourse analysis with reading coaching so as to arouse and promote readers’ sense of discourse, with the hope of helping them to read effectively.