Volume 3 Number 12 December 2017

Invoking Implicit Attitude: The Play of Graduation in News Text of China Daily

Authors: Liu Zhi-peng
Pages: 141-144
The news text, unlike other texts, tends to directly or indirectly convey the media’s attitudes or thoughts with the implicit appraisal resources. Martin pointed out that graduation resource is the most significant approach to realize the implicit evaluation in the text and the scaling semantic meaning may flag the evaluation. This paper analyzed the role of graduation in English-language China Daily and then discussed the covert attitude encoded in the news text.

Designing Project Based- Content Language Integrated Learning (Clil) for Elf Higher Education Institutions in Indonesia

Authors: Huzairin Djahri ; Basturi Hasan ; Sudirman ; Hery Yufrizal
Pages: 133-140
This article aims at exposing a design of project based content language integrated learning (CLIL) at a higher education insitution in Indonesia. Th design is proposed based on a mixture of the principle of language integrated learning (CLIL) and the principle of project based learning. The design was implemented for the teaching of English as a compulsory subject at three departments of the university of Lampung. Quantitative data was obtained from the value of students’ English proficiency before and after CLIL model application. While the qualitative data was obtained from the output of language produced by students during the learning process took place. The results showed that project based CLIL English language course at the faculty of teaching and education, the University of Lampung could work effectively. This is evident from the implementation of the whole program activities, from the implementation of the formation of groups, students work in groups to finish the project, group presentation activities, personal presentations and students’ responses to all activities.

The Effects of Relearning With Audiovisual Support on EFL Learners? Vocabulary Recall

Authors: Wenhua Hsu
Pages: 124-132
This study investigated relearning with audiovisual support. The researcher-teacher used video for her freshman English Reading class and tested its effects on word recall. To help students remember forty newly-introduced words from four news stories, two weeks later, the four news videos were broadcast in four audiovisual modes to four groups of students alternately: (1) captioned, (2) non-captioned, (3) silent captioned and (4) screen-off. Results show that the four groups of students recalled 17.65 to18.81 words on average in the second encounter with forty target words through video in different modes. Concerning the audiovisual effects on vocabulary learning, audio track only (screen-off video) prompted the participants to recall the greatest number of target words than the other three modalities. Drawing upon the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, this study aims to raise awareness of the modality effect when using video as a repetition medium for vocabulary consolidation.

Unergativity in Embosi

Authors: Yvon-Pierre Ndongo-Ibara
Pages: 118-123
This contribution investigates the unaccusative hypothesis driving data from Embosí language regarding unergative predicates. It comes out from discussion that if Split intransitive is a cross linguistically based phenomenon, its diagnostic tests are rather linguistic parameters of variation. Perlmutter (1978) puts forward three different forms of unaccusative hypothesis, then I assert that it is his second form which suits and meets its explanatory adequacy cross linguistically. Moreover, Embosí resorts to two tests namely nominalization and cognate objects to diagnose unergative predicates. Finally, unergativity is related to agentivity and volition.

A Foucauldian Reading of Peter Shaffer?s Equus

Authors: Serap Denizer Bozkurt
Pages: 112-117
Michel Foucault, the twentieth century philosopher, brings a new perspective to the concepts of madness and power. He shows how the perception of the concept of madness changes in his “History of Madness”. In Classical Age, mad people were treated as animals and the aim was to tame them as they were a threat to the order of the society. However, in Renaissance that perception changed and the mad were started to be appreciated because madness was affiliated with knowledge. In the eighteenth century, it was seen as the disease of the society, not of the individual. In Peter Shaffer’s “Equus” the main character, Alan, is thought to be mad and the doctor Dysart starts questioning the characteristics of madness. First, Dysart sees Alan as a customer; however, at the end of the play, he criticizes his own profession as it aims to create normal people who are purified from their passions. The definition of power by Foucault is not restricted upon the oppressor and the oppressed as he focuses more on the subjects of power. According to Foucault in all kinds of relationships, the power exercises and it can be claimed that the prerequisite of the existence of the power is the people. Power cannot only be evaluated as something possessed by certain people, classes or institutions and Foucault criticizes that kind of understanding of power. In Shaffer’s “Equus”, the power operates between the doctor and the patient and within the family members. The doctor seems superior as the hospital provides an advantage as a panoptic machine. However, the patient starts establishing the course of events, and it can be seen that the patient gains the power. The parents of Alan are quite distinct from each other. Dora, Alan’s mother, is excessively religious, but Frank, Alan’s father, is an atheist and he puts the blame on religion in Alan’s case. Both parents contribute to the madness of Alan and become object, target, and the references. All in all, we are all subjects of power in the grand mechanism of power.

Female Dominance and Men?s Subordination: Gerald and Andy in Woman in Mind, and Dysart and Frank in Equus

Authors: Muammer Ozoltulular
Pages: 106-111
The aim of this paper is to claim, analysing four male characters in Alan Ayckbourn’s Woman in Mind and Peter Shaffer’s Equus, that problems caused by sex/gender discrimination are not due to men only; instead, these problems exist beyond masculinity since men are also subject to oppression, subordination and victimisation in patriarchal societies. This assertion may be justified by the abundance of subordination of men in patriarchal societies. Moreover, it may be claimed that subordination is not limited to men and women and it spreads to other minorities, which lack power prevailing anything on earth. The solution to the problems caused by not only gender but also sex discriminations may be neutralisation of what is called femininity and masculinity. This article concludes with the assertion that it may be claimed based on the analysis of four male characters in Equus and Woman in Mind that the problems based on so-called gender/ sex issues in any societies are not led by only masculinity since the victims of the subordination and any kind of oppression in societies are not only women, as some of the feminist discourses claim, but also men.