Volume 5 Number 1 January 2019
The Doctrine of Reality: A New Paradigm of Science
Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
The doctrine of reality and a new paradigm of science are proposed. The unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis for the solution of the problem of reality. The main result is the following system of conceptions: (1) reality represents the unity of opposites: the controlling (governing) aspect and the controllable aspect. The controlling (governing) aspect is God, and the controllable aspect is the Universe; (2) the principle of existence and of uniqueness of God reads as follows: the scientific object “Absolute, Creator, and Governor of essence (information) and of material manifestation of essence” exists. This scientific object is the unique and correct theoretical model (identifier) of the religious object “God (Creator and Governor of the World)”; (3) the Universe represents the informational-material system: the unity of essence (information) and of material manifestation of essence. The manifestation of information is matter. The material structure of the Universe represents the set of states of matter: the physical vacuum, the system block, the ether, and the discrete objects; (4) God created the system block, the ether and the objects, entering information into the physical vacuum. God governs the Universe by means of information; (5) the correct science of the 21st century should research the fundamental relation between the controlling (governing) information and the material manifestation of the controlling (governing) information in the Universe.
Synthesis of Some Unsymmetrical Dioxime Esters Using the Acetylacetone as a Precursor
Authors: Ramadan Ali Bawa ; Mohammed Ali Sawalem
Three unsymmetrical dioxime esters (2E,4E)-(4-imino O-benzoyl-2-imino O-terphthaloyl)pentane, (2E,4E)-(4-imino O-benzoyl-2-imino O-tosyl)pentane and (2E,4E)-(4-imino O-terphthaloyl-2-imino O-tosyl)pentane were obtained employing esterification process between (2E,4E)-pentane-2,4-dione O4-benzoyl dioxime 2 and terephthaloyl chloride or tosyl chloride. The third unsymmetrical dioxime ester was synthesized through similar esterification reaction between 4-(2E,4E)-4-(hydroxyimino)pentan-2-ylideneaminooxycarbonyl)benzoyl chloride 8 and tosyl chloride. The yields of these esterification reactions has been found to vary from moderate to very good yields giving single geometric isomers in all cases. The synthesis of these three unsymmetrical dioxime esters required, firstly, the synthesis of (2E,4E)-pentane-2,4-dione O4-benzoyl dioxime and 4- [(2E,4E)-4-(hydroxyimino)pentan-2-ylidene]amino oxycarbonylbenzoyl chloride as two precursors.
Biodegradation of Organophosphorous Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos
Authors: Farjana A. Koly ; Ruhul A. Khan
At the present time extensive varieties of pesticides are being used but the demand for organophosphorus pesticide is increasing globally to control insect. Chlorpyrifos is a broad spectrum, moderately toxic, chlorinated organophosphate insecticide that is synthetic in origin and is normally ester or thiol derivatives of phosphoric, phosphonic or phosphoramidic acids. The mode of action involves inhibiting acetyl cholinesterase leading to accumulation of acetylcholine causing neurotoxicity. It is being transported by circulation far away from site of application leading to pollution of environment. Due to its persistent in nature, it is not only severely detrimental to the target pests, but also causes toxicity in non-target organisms including humans. It is thus critically important to develop methods to eradicate these pollutants from the environment. Lately, research activities in this area have demonstrated that microorganisms are potential tool in decaying chlorpyrifos into less harmful and non-toxic metabolites through a process known as bioremediation. This article therefore aims at giving an overview of the present status of research and future prospects in bioremediation of chlorpyrifos.
Essential Oils and Biodegradable Packaging Materials: Application on Food Preservations
Authors: Tofa Begum ; Jumana Mahmud ; Md. Naimul Islam ; Ruhul A. Khan
Essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic oily liquid substances extracted from different plant organs. The most common source of essential oils are clove, lavender, cinnamon, lemon grass, coriander, rosewood, cumin, ginger, oregano etc. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds and serve as antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds. In addition, essential oils have been used as natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, essential oils can be incorporated into packaging materials to prevent unavoidable microbial spoilage, and to extend shelf-life of the product. The extraction method of essential oil is most important because inappropriate extraction may damage the chemical properties. Essential oil can be extracted by several methods such as distillation, steam distillation, expression, and solvent extraction. This review article covers up the essential oil including sources, chemical composition, extraction process, antimicrobial activity of EOs, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products.