Volume 5 Number 7 July 2019
Numbers in Life: A Statistical Genetic Approach
Authors: Obubu Maxwell ; Ikediuwa Udoka Chinedu ; Anabike Charles Ifeanyi
In this paper, we briefly reviewed the numbers in life from a statistical genetic approach. The human genome comprises of 6 billion chemical bases of DNA. The DNA encodes 30,000 genes. It consists of two parts; the nuclear genome; which consists of 3,200,000,000 nucleotides of DNA, divided into 24 linear molecules, the shortest 50,000,000 nucleotides in length and the longest 260,000,000 nucleotides, each contained in a different chromosome and the mitochondrial genome; which contains approximately 16,600 base pairs encoding 37 genes. Most human cells have 46 chromosomes. However, the number of chromosomes in the nuclei of a person with Down syndrome is 47. The DNA of any two people on Earth is 99.6 percent identical, the 0.4 percent variation represents about 20 million base pairs. Almost all 98 percent of the human DNA is noncoding, while in bacteria, only 2% of the genetic material does not code for anything.
Visual Atlas Analysis of Distance Measurement Research Literature Based on CiteSpace Literature Bibliometrics
Authors: Yunhui Zeng ; Xiaoming Lin ; Li Huang ; Yilin Chen ; Fan Guo ; Hongfei Guo
Based on 25668 literatures in the field of distance measurement research and application from 2015 to 2018, this paper uses CiteSpace information visualization software to visualize the distance measurement research literature. From the point of view of bibliometrics, this paper analyzes the visual atlas of countries, disciplines, research institutions, fund support, literature keywords and research frontiers of distance measurement methods. The literature information in the research and application fields of distance measurement at home and abroad in recent years is compared and analyzed. Information is used to evaluate the research progress and development trend of distance measurement, in order to provide literature reference for the relevant personnel engaged in distance measurement research.
Could Photovoltaic Parks be More Profitable as an Investment Compared to Tree Crops in Mediterranean Water Scarce Regions?
Authors: Giatrakis Georgios ; Kourgialas N. Nektarios ; Tsouchlaraki Androniki ; Maria Efpraxia ; Dokou Zoi
Food security and access to electricity are considered core elements forthedevelopment of modern societies. In some cases, energy supplies are prioritized and therefore may compete with food resources. Since 2009, the sudden increase of photovoltaic system investments in Greece and particularly in Crete, as an effort to comply with the European directives on sustainable energy sources, led tothe replacement of many fieldsof traditional agricultural cultivations (such as olive and orange trees) with photovoltaic parks.The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic benefit of the investment of photovoltaic parks on farmlands compared to the cultivation of olive and citrus crops.To this end, two different scenarios were investigated. In the first scenario, the replacement of a 1000 m2 olive grove area,located in highly productive land, witha small photovoltaic park of 25 kW was investigated. The second scenarioconsidersa much larger photovoltaic park of 100 kW which replaces an orange grove of 3500 m2 at highly productive land. It was found that in both cases,the profitability of the investment, for a time span of 20 yrs, was highly dependent on the time when the power purchase agreement was signed. As a general rule, investments made before 2013 can be characterized as profitable. After 2013, the situation became more complex and the financial success of the investments is not guaranteed.