International Journal of World Policy and Development Studies

Online ISSN: 2415-2331
Print ISSN: 2415-5241

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)


Volume 7 Number 2 June 2021

Implications of Illicit Financial Flows on Zimbabwe's Development

Authors: Jeffrey Kurebwa
Pages: 27-34
Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs) is a major challenge to Zimbabwe’s development. They have a direct impact on the country’s stability to raise, retain and mobilize its own resources to finance sustainable economic development. The study finds that Zimbabwe lost over US$32.179 billion during the period 2000 to 2020. The study relies on normative and legal arguments to justify the effects of illicit financial flows. The problems with IFFs are that they are not only illicit but that their effect spreads far beyond their immediate area of occurrence. Zimbabwe has suffered irreparable damage because of illicit financial flows. IFFs are mainly driven by the desire to hide wealth and to evade taxes; perpetrators clearly do not respect the obligations of citizenship. Financial flows are crucial for poor countries and have played an important role in Zimbabwe. Since not all financial flows are good for development, the integration of poor countries into the global financial system poses opportunities as well as risks.

Health Implications of Air Quality Index of Fine and Coarse Particulates During Outdoor Combustion of Biomass in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Authors: Glory Richard ; Wisdom Ebiye Sawyer ; Sylvester Chibueze Izah
Pages: 21-26
Rural dwellers in the Niger Delta commonly use biomass for cooking and other activities. This study investigated the air quality index of fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter 10 (PM10) and its health implications during outdoor combustion of fuelwood in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. A mini-volume air sampler (model: AEROCET 531) was used to measure PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulate (TSP) in the study area.  A bimonthly triplicate sampling was carried out at 3 distances in 4 different states spanning one Calendar year. The results showed that PM2.5, PM10, and TSP ranged from 19.85 – 27.95µg/m3, 55.66 – 80.59µg/m3, and 74.29 – 140.44µg/m3, respectively. There was statistical variation across the different months, locations and distances, and their interactions. The concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 occasionally exceeds the World Health Organization limits of 25µg/m3 and 50µg/m3 for 24-hourly average, respectively. The air quality index showed no contamination to slight contamination in both seasons. The air quality index indicates that the air is slightly contaminated at the emission source which decreased as distance away increased. Therefore, there is a need for the regulatory agencies to consider PM2.5 and PM10 in the monitoring of ambient air quality to forestall potential hazards associated with human exposure.

Identifying Local Realities and Anticipating Challenges in Building Capacity of Ontario Municipal Wastewater Systems in Tracking for SARS-CoV-2

Authors: Zobia Jawed ; Gail Krantzberg ; Sasha Voinson
Pages: 7-20
One of the biggest challenges that public health experts have ever faced is detecting and mitigating the community spread of COVID-19. Current clinical testing of COVID-19 patients is limited in terms of testing kits available, cost logistics, and detecting individuals that are mildly symptomatic and asymptomatic. False positives and false negatives also cloud the true picture of the pandemic. Ontario municipalities’ wastewater systems can provide new testing opportunities for a non-invasive approach in tracking and monitoring the community spread of COVID-19 through sampling raw sludge or untreated wastewater to test for SAR-CoV-2 RNA fragments. Current global and domestic research confirms the effectiveness of wastewater epidemiology surveillance of SAR-CoV-2 and can be detected even before individuals experience symptoms providing a real-time indicator for appropriate public health interventions. In collaboration with the COVID-19 Wastewater Consortium of Ontario (CWCO), an initiative of McMaster University, the objective of this research is to determine the means to optimize the current infrastructure capacity of municipal wastewater systems as an opportunity to monitor and track COVID-19 spread in the community by identifying local realities and risks. To identify local challenges, we distributed a survey amongst Ontario municipalities regarding wastewater treatment plants’ characteristics, held focus group discussions, and implemented an eight-week sampling program with CWCO’s partners. This report focuses on municipal wastewater treatment plants with in-house laboratory facilities to analyze the current capacity and limitations associated with their sampling and analysis programs. Drawing from survey responses and focus group discussions, we revealed gaps for municipalities to move forward with sample testing and data processing as well as governance challenges.