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International Journal of World Policy and Development Studies

Online ISSN: 2415-2331
Print ISSN: 2415-5241

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)


Volume 9 Number 2 June 2023

Climate Spectrophotometric Assessment and Health Risks Scrutiny of Nitrate and Cadmium Ions Accumulation in Water Physiques in Southern, Rainforest Belt of Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Ufuah ; Christopher Ehizemhen Igibah ; Lucia Omolayo Agashua, et. al.
Pages: 46-61
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijwpds.92.46.61
Anthropogenic and industrial activities triggering an alteration on the natural cadmium and nitrogen cycle are deliberated on as one among the most vital environmental concerns. Water quality index (WQI) and skewness, nitrate was 8.37 ± 1.014 in dry season and 3087.87 ± 1.150 for wet season, but cadmium was 0 ± 1.559 in wet season and zero all through the sunny period. Equating results with World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits, it discovered that nitrate was low throughout both seasons whereas cadmium was 90% above permissible during rainy season, but 100% within limit throughout arid season. The water- physiques in all sites at Ikpoba River in both seasons revealed low disparities (< 20%) with positive linear relationship (R 0.922 ≥ 0.211) for nitrate and (R 0 ≤ 089) for cadmium in dry and wet seasons respectively. What’s more, site 1 in the wet season, and all sites in dry season, exhibited no significant dissimilarities (p >0.05) between them, but others indicated significant dissimilarity (p <0.05) for cadmium and nitrate concentrations. In respect to seasonality, all water-physiques scrutinized revealed significant dissimilarities (p <0.05) for both seasons (nitrate and phosphate) concentration. The cadmium-nitrate ratio was very high particularly in the humid season because of the high input of nitrate. The nutrient contagion index displayed slightly to significantly contagion, whereas the water physiques will pose very high non-carcinogenic health risks and threats to users through the oral pathway.

Assessing the Best Fit Volume and Carbon Stock Equation of Pinus Roxburghii with Respect to Diameter at Breast Height Using Non-Destructive Method

Authors: Rajesh Prasad Dahal ; Ram Ashewshwar Mandal
Pages: 39-45
DOI: doi.org/10.32861/ijwpds.92.39.45
Pinus roxburghii is dominant timber species in Nepal. However, there is not any model showing correlation of Diameter at breast height (DBH) with Volume and Carbon Stock. Therefore, this study was objectively conducted to show the correlation of diameter with volume and carbon stock. Gaumati community forest was selected as study site for this research. Total 214 sample trees were taken into account for the study. DBH classes were categorized into s 0-10, 11-20, 21-30, and 31-40, 41-50, and DBH > 50 cm to represent the most of the diameter classes. Height and DBH were measured using Clinometer and Diameter tape.  Four types of models were developed for volume and carbon stock with DBH viz. linear, logarithmic, power, and exponential. The models were tested, out of which the power equation was found to be the most accurate for both carbon and volume calculations. Power volume and carbon stock equations are y = 0.00004 x2.8404 (y=volume, x=DBH) and y = 0.0125x2.8404 (y=carbon stock, x=DBH) respectively. The estimated values of R2, MAD, MSE, RMSE and AIC were 0.9817, 0.178, 0.093, 0.305 and -41.58 respectively for power volume model and these values of R2, MAD, MSE, RMSE and AIC were 0.9817, 21.92, 1379.01, 37.13 and 1194.18 respectively for carbon stock calculation. Study shows that, there is a strong correlation between DBH vs. volume and DBH vs. carbon stock. Thus, the volume equation and carbon stock equation will be useful for forest science to calculate the volume and carbon stock of standing plants.