International Journal of World Policy and Development Studies
Online ISSN: 2415-2331
Print ISSN: 2415-5241
Print ISSN: 2415-5241
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 6 Number 7 November 2020
From Growth Poles and Clusters to Business Ecosystems Dynamics: The ILDI Counterproposal
Authors: Charis Vlados ; Dimos Chatzinikolaou
The study of spatial socio-economic development constitutes a significant field of analysis of innovation creation and diffusion. Understanding the spatial evolution of the different socio-economic systems in the age of globalization requires a synthesizing and integrated theoretical approach to how innovation is generated and replicated. This article aims to study three significant spatial socio-economic development theories –the growth poles, the clusters, and the business ecosystems. A literature review reveals that (a) the concept of growth poles concerns mostly the analysis of spatial polarization between specific territories and regions, (b) the clusters concept addresses the issue of developed inter-industrial competition and co-operation from a meso-level perspective, and (c) the analytical field of business ecosystems provides an evolutionary approach that can be valorized for all co-evolving spatial socio-economic organizations. In this context, an eclectically interventional mechanism to strengthen innovation is suggested. The Institutes of Local Development and Innovation (ILDI) policy is proposed for all firms and business ecosystems, of every size, level of spatial development, prior knowledge, specialization, and competitive ability. The ILDI is presented as an intermediate organization capable of diagnosing and enhancing the firm’s physiology in structural Stra.Tech.Man terms (strategy-technology-management synthesis).
Challenges of Participatory Development in West Africa: A Study of Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020 Economic Blueprint
Authors: Daniel Nwanmereni ; Christopher Ochonogor
The formulation and implementation of development plans serve as the benchmark for evaluating economic progress in different sectors of an economy. Since independence, successive administrations in Nigeria have paraded different economic development plans. At the continental level also, several development programmes have been articulated for driving development in the countries of Africa. Many times, supposed laudable economic programmes have failed to identify with the interest of citizens, largely due to poor communication of such programmes. This study investigated citizens’ participation in the implementation of Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020. Among others, the study asked the following questions: to what extent are Nigerian citizens aware goals of Vision 20:2020 economic blueprint? What were the media used in popularising Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020 economic blueprint? The study was anchored on the Participatory Development theory. The survey research design was used to study a population of 84, 004, 084 from which a sample size of 384 respondents was drawn. The sample was based on Keyton’s sampling system. Findings of the study showed that many citizens of Nigeria do not understand the goals of Vision 20:2020. It was also found out that many citizens of Nigeria cannot identify development projects executed in line with the goals of Vision 20:2020. Based on these findings, the study recommended, among other things, that the Nigerian government should partner with civil society organisations to popularise the goals of Vision 20:2020. It was also recommended that citizens of Nigeria should be encouraged to participate in the formulation and implementation of development programmes.
Evaluating the Programs and Procedures of Project Planning and Management: the Case of Ethiopia Red Cross Society
Authors: Elias Munye Dagnew
The central purpose of the study is to evaluate the programs, project planning and management in Ethiopian Red Cross society and its comparison with procedures of project planning and management system. The study found that Ethiopian Red Cross society has been working on a lot of community development projects in Ethiopia for several decades. Most projects were principally emphasized on disaster and risk reduction. Different organizations use diverse project procedures to achieve the anticipated objectives. This also true for the Ethiopian Red Cross society projects. The Ethiopian Red Cross society had integrated some unique style of project planning and management system in its project. Thus, there was no total departure in the whole system of project development phases. Every cycle of the project life spans are used beginning from the point of concept initiation to final implementation and closure phases.
Conservation Agriculture: An Agroecological Approach to Adapting and Mitigating Climate Change Impacts on Malawi’s Agriculture
Authors: Adewale M. Ogunmodede
Although Africa’s contribution to the world’s greenhouse gas emission is the smallest compared to other continents, yet they tend to be affected most by the variability in Climate. Malawi is not an exception to this climate change, as they are not just faced with rising temperatures and variable rainfall patterns, but with reoccurring droughts and severe flooding. Agriculture has been noted to contribute significantly to not only climate change but also has significant impacts on global warming through its greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, not all farming systems impact negatively on climate change. Conservation Agriculture is a farming system that encourages no or minimum soil disturbance, maintenance of a permanent soil cover, and diversification of crop species. These three interlinked principles combined with good agricultural practices promote biodiversity and normal biotic processes, both on and under the ground surface, thereby increasing the productivity and nutrient use efficiency of water, into a more resilient farming system which will help sustain and improve agricultural production. This review looks at Conservation Agriculture practices in the Machinga Agricultural Development Division of Malawi and its role in climate change mitigation and adaptation. This paper shows that Conservation Agriculture has played an active role in the adaptation and mitigation of climate change effect by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions but suggested there is a need for the government to formulate a CA framework that is founded on the three interlinked principles and not just based on soil and water conservation principles which are currently being advocated and practised.
Dynamics in Academic Achievement of Female Education in Jima Arjo Woreda and the Role of Governmental and NGO’s Organizations
Authors: Wagari Guluma Bekele
The study was conducted on issues affecting the academic achievement of female students in selected primary schools of Jimma Arjo woreda while its objective was to investigate the major factors that affect the academic achievements of female students in primary schools of four sampled primary schools/Arjo primary school, Andinnet, Arbi-gebeya and Wayu Warke primary schools. Female students academic achievements show an upgrading from time to time, but still the rise is delicate when contrast to males. The finding identified the five broad categories, Family related, school related, socio-economic related, cultural related were the major factors that affect the academic achievements of females’ education. The common issues household responsibilities, low awareness of parents towards females education, parents financial problems, parents education level, lack of school facilities, school distance, the nature of teacher student relationship, the study behavior female students implement, teaching method teachers use, early marriage, less avails of role models are the main reasons for squat academic achievements of female students on education. To alleviate these upward parents awareness to wards the benefit of educating females, motivating female students, providing financial supports for the poor female students, improving school facilities and protecting female from abduction and early marriage/from any harmful traditions were recommended.
Economic Loss of Timber Caused by Over Stumps and Defects in Community Forests Terai Nepal
Authors: Shailaja Awasthi ; Bijay Yadav ; Manoj Panta ; Ram Asheshwar Mandal
The economic loss of timber caused by over stumps and defects is an essential issue in forest science but study regarding this is very limited in Nepal. Thus, this research was objectively conducted to assess the volume of timber loss and associated monetary loss caused by over stumps and defects in logs and reason behind this. Three community forests namely Deurali, Jay Durga and Raniphanta community forests were selected for this research. Total enumeration was done so 375 stumps and 224 defected logs were measured from15 March to 15 April, 2019. The height and diameter at the butt end were measured using simple tape and D-tape respectively. Additionally, the length and diameter of defects in log was recorded. Total thirty key informant interviews and three focus group discussions were organized to assess the major causes of over stumps and defects. The timber volume loss caused by over stumps was calculated using cylindrical volume formula and volume loss caused by defect was calculated using formula, i.e. gross volume - net volume. The price of wood was collected from community forest to calculate the monetary value of timber loss. The principal component analysis was applied to assess the major causes of over stumps and defect in log. The highest total volume loss was recorded around 15.217 m3 (28.49%) caused by over stumps and out of this, it was 53.41 m3 timber loss in Deurali community forest. The loss due to defects in tree was ranged from 128.57 to 284.21 m3 in the community forests. The monetary value of loss caused by over stump was US$ 6971.14 of Shorea robusta in Deurali community forest and it was US$ 8100.52 because of defect. The principal component analysis showed that use of saw and axe for felling the trees in the community forests was considered as highest factor of over stump and diseases and over mature trees were key factors of wood defect. The research will be useful for policy makers and scientific community to monitor the timber loss.