Purpose: dynamic reproduction of multi-trend stock market processes. Discussion: the authors consider adaptation principles as the basis of the mechanism of the effective stock market. Considering the behavior of the stock market as the behavior of a single social and economic system, having the properties of self-adjustment, self-regulation, adaptation to new, continuously changing conditions, the stock market theories recognized by the scientific community, but disparate and opposing stock market theories, can be considered as a complementary. The fact that the stock market is volatile and follows variable rules at different time intervals formed the understanding of the multi-trend processes of the stock market. Results: the authors introduce the concept of a basis trend and make suggestions concerning its properties. A formal statistical model of the multi-trend process has been proposed, it is introduced as a set of trend components. This model formed the basis of dynamic technology of the adaptive trend decomposition of financial time series, demonstrated in the empirical part.
The paper is devoted to the development of approaches to improving the management of borrowed capital of enterprises in modern conditions. It is established that the scope of the proposed approaches is quite broad, since they can be useful for coowners and shareholders of the enterprise as a reference point for making managerial decisions to improve the personnel management in connection with enterprise finances, serve as benchmarks for the formation of prices for credit resources, characterize the results of management activities to raise and use borrowed capital. It is proved that the planning of the volume of mobilization of borrowed capital can be considered as a component of the development of the company’s production and financial plan, which determines its main characteristics in the prospective period, the structure and volume of production, price policy, revenues, expenditures and financial result. It is established that properly organized financial planning becomes the key to improving the efficiency of the formation of borrowed capital.
The article reveals methodological approaches to the assessment of import substitution in the agro-industrial complex of the country as a transition to export orientation, as well as identifies the potential niches of effective import substitution in the market of agricultural products and export orientation determinants of agricultural industries. The conclusion is drawn concerning the growth of self-sufficiency and reduction of Russia’s dependence on imported food supplies. The study of the geographical structure dynamics of the food imports is carried out, as well as the study of the formation and development process of export food potential of Russia in the context of import substitution and foreign economic instability. The necessity of an integrated approach to the problem of the country’s export potential formation in the conditions of import substitution is substantiated.
The purpose of this work is to investigate the significance of developing the nation’s small and medium-sized business sector, explore a set of organizational/economic conditions of financial support for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and examine some of the key characteristics of existing financial support for the business environment within the economy’s priority sectors in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In conducting the study, the authors employed the statistical method, comparative analysis and summarization, the systemic and sociological approaches, graphical representation of information, and the integrated approach. The study’s key objectives include the following: to investigate the significance of instruments of financial support for SMEs, including lending, subsidizing, guaranteeing, collateral support, and microfinancing; to identify a set of possible ways to enhance the activity of second-level banks in relation to granting long-term loans to businesses; to explore the significance of Messages to the Nation from the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the government’s ‘2020 Business Roadmap’ program, ‘The Program for the Development of Productive Employment and Mass Entrepreneurship for the Period 2017–2021’, and the activity of such major organizations as the Damu fund, KazAgroFinance, and Agrarian Credit Corporation in relation to funding the activity of SMEs.
The article examines the basic directions of cooperation of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the leading financial and economic institutions. The authors analyze the activities of the major active organizations that fall within the scope of "international" institutions. Based on the survey of respondents, the study accesses the performance of the republic’s international organizations. This is followed by the analysis of attracting direct investments into the country with the help of international financial institutions. Furthermore, the study identifies the key factors of investment attractiveness of the Republic of Kazakhstan along with the relevant negative aspects. In the end, the authors give concrete proposals on improving the investment climate to attract foreign direct investment, which would ensure the country’s sustainable development.
Introduction. The article addresses the subject of integrative approach applications in tutor support of students during the university education. It presents a detailed description of using the integrative approach as a methodological principle that implies a comprehensive evaluation of students’ personality. The aim of the article is to study the specifics of integrative approach applications in tutor support of university students. Materials and methods. The main methods of the study include analysis of the scientific literature on the topic of integrative approach applications in tutor support of university students, as well as diagnostic methods, such as survey, instrumental methods and statistical methods of data analysis. Results. Typological personality characteristics, such as activity, orientation, structure of motivation and needs, ultimate values and self-regulation, were defined. The authors evaluated the level of neural dynamics and the level of brain energy metabolism (BEM), which resulted to be sig-nificantly different in students with different educational and professional orientation. Discussion. It is pointed out that the integrative approach allows evaluating individual-typological personality traits and stating that people that are oriented at nonregulated activity should be included in tutor support during their professional education. Conclusion. The results of the study allow concluding that the models of tutor support of students might be different according to the students’ educational and professional orientation.
The majority of trade enterprises in Russia are guided by the average demand and delivery time indicators in stock management, and only a few large companies use simulation of logistics processes, which improves the efficiency and performance by reducing costs of storage and shortages. The article presents a model of stock management, or a model of determining the optimal delivery moment with due account for the uncertainty of demand. The criterion of minimizing the integral costs, with due account for the costs of excess stocks and the costs of the lack of goods in stock, is an efficiency criterion. The triangular distribution is considered as a law of random demand distribution, being one of the most appropriate in the context of insufficient statistical data. The economic mathematical model under consideration allows to optimize the delivery moment if risks are minimized, based on statistical data on the demand for goods in the previous period, or to use expert estimates if such data are not available. These data are sufficient for building a probability distribution for a random variable of demand. The model allows to determine the day of delivery for a certain amount of goods in the case of random demand if risks are minimized. In the case of a triangular distribution, this optimization problem has an analytical solution, which is reduced to formula evaluation.
This paper is devoted to working out a set of focus areas for the development of the market for sports services in present-day conditions. The authors substantiate that the development of the market for sports services is crucial to the development of the nation and its human potential and requires the use of systematic approach across all of the key focus areas. The paper addresses the need for the government to create the necessary conditions that will facilitate the development of the nation’s fitness and sports services industry. The authors establish that effective management of the fitness/sports movement at the level of regions and companies is all about competently allocating the funds outlaid toward fitness and sports and furthering the development of the nation’s private sports services sector. The paper puts forth the suggestion that putting in place a system of sports services, and providing support for the existing one, in companies ought to include the initiation and development of sponsorship activity.
The research paper proves that the essence of the effectiveness of the innovation economy is the capital-saving intensification of production. The paper fully describes the economic mechanism of capital and labor saving in the production and marketing of products and services. The primary motivation for innovative business is the growth of labor productivity in equal conditions that leads to a reduction in cost per unit of output, which certainly provides high additional revenue, covering initial expenses. This is the formula for the efficiency of industrial-innovative development of the economy. Depending on the level of innovation, profitability can be different.
The paper examines the ways to increase the intellectual potential of a university, which functions as an element of the national education system. The purpose of the paper is to study the properties and patterns of the functioning and development of the university as the main element of the national educational system. The methodological basis of the article is the powerful platform of the systems’ theory and the system analysis. The methodology is applied to the study of an educational system at different hierarchical levels. Our major finding is the set of regularities in the functioning of the educational system. There are indicators that the management effectiveness of the educational system and higher educational institutions can be enhanced by increasing the professionalism and the qualifications of the research and teaching staff of the university. A qualitative enhancement stems from the increase of unification and standardization of organizational processes.
The article analyzes the experimental study of the effect of the conduct self-regulation on the functional state and physical development of cadets studying in a military institute. Theoretical analysis of various guidance documents on the study problem shows that at the present stage of modernizing the Russian National Guard Troops and higher professional education, military institutes must use efficient innovative approaches to obtaining knowledge by cadets. It goes about developing an individual efficient pedagogical impact on cadets that contributes to forming self-development, searching for nonstandard solutions for problems, and better learning of the educational material. The authors define the interrelation between the conduct self-regulation and models of the conduct self-regulation and a complex of physical exercises that were developed and introduced to the educational process of the military institute as the main factors that determine high efficiency of physical training of cadets. The article identifies the problem on establishing a contradiction between the needs of troops in officers who are ready for sudden fulfillment of service and service-combat tasks, and pedagogical capabilities of the educational process of the military institute that contribute to forming the conduct self-regulation and developing cadets’ physical skills required for this. Reasons of low level of physical conditioning and functional state of the first-year cadets are critically analyzed.
The article is devoted to the study of characteristic features of the education system of developed countries and Russia in the modern postindustrial era. The priority of knowledge as a system-forming element of postindustrial society leads to new trends in educational processes. The authors’ study is focused on these transformations in the theory and practice of education.
The purpose of this work is to study the peculiarities of formation and space-temporal spreading of vegetation cover in the European desert during the Tertiary and The Quaternary periods. The authors have revealed three ecological-historical stages: Ancient Caspian, New Caspian and Newest Caspian, which correspond to the periods of main fluctuations in the Caspian Sea, as well as to global climate changes, which periodically caused the changes of different types of vegetation. Ecotone type of landscape has been observed in the European desert. Ecotone of the first class has been traced in the Precaspian Lowland, ecotone of the second class – in the vegetation of the Ancient Caspian terraces and the thirds class – in the transitional zones between terraces. Each terrace corresponds to an exact geological epoch: Early Khavlynian, Late Khvalynian and New Caspian. Vegetation as an indicator of ecological conditions reflects landscape evolution in the Precaspian region. Ecological-dynamic rows, laying on each terrace, reveal regularity of succession process from the Caspian Sea coast to zonal vegetation. Criteria of evaluation are as follows: decrease of ground waters level and saline degree of soil.
The article deals with the problem of competitiveness and efficiency of crop production in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Presented detailed analysis of the crop industry condition reveals the importance of the pacing factors limiting production, demand, and possible yielding of different types of products, as well as its dynamic entry into the market. It was established that per hectare subsidies in crop production were ineffective and did not encourage the interest of agricultural producers in increasing productivity. The conducted analysis has led to the conclusion that to improve the production efficiency and product competitiveness, the agricultural businesses should carry out certain activities to improve the quality of seed grain, special tillage, as well as the appropriate fertilizer distribution depending on the needs of the soil in nutrients, and other measures that would ultimately contribute to the growth of agricultural product quality characteristics.
The article presents the author’s classification of risks related to the traffic system. Materials of applied sociological research that demonstrate its approbation and contain the assessment are presented. The expert survey and the compilation of a risk rating with the arithmetic average at a 10-point grade system are used as the basic method. The heuristic moments in the evolution of scientific ideas about the category of "risk" are recorded, which allowed to develop the author’s classification of risks. An algorithm is proposed for the transition from the theoretical construct to empirical recording that allowed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the state of risks and their impact on the traffic system safety. Methods to minimize the risks of the traffic system in the modern conditions are reviewed.
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