English Literature and Language Review
Online ISSN: 2412-1703
Print ISSN: 2413-8827
Print ISSN: 2413-8827
Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)
Volume 5 Number 9 September 2019
The Impact of Flipped Classroom Instruction on Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Skill
Authors: Parisa Abedi ; Ehsan Namaziandost ; Samira Akbari
This study attempted to examine the effects of flipped classroom instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ writing skill. To fulfill the objective of the study, 48 Iranian upper-intermediate participants were selected through administrating the Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT). Then, they were divided into two groups; one experimental group and one control group. Then, both groups were pretested by a writing test. After that, the researcher put the participants of the experimental group in a flipped classroom. The flipped classroom was equipped with Internet, computer and projector and participants in this classroom were allowed to bring their Smartphones to the classroom and use them during learning. The control group was exposed to traditional instruction in the class. This procedure continued till the last session. The results of independent samples t-test and one-way ANCOCA revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group on the post-test. In addition, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the performances of the experimental group and the control group on the post-test.
The Significance of Neuroscience for Teaching English as Second Language (TESL) in the Digital Era
Authors: Dr. Diana Po Lan Sham
In formal TESL courses, Phonetics, Linguistics, Grammar as well as Psychology are taught. However, Neuroscience, the study of the brain, is necessary for ESL teachers for future professional development to meet the rapidly changing needs of the students at all levels in the digital era. Designing educational practices without knowledge of the brain is like “an automobile designer without a full understanding of engines” (Hart, 1999). Based on the neurological evidence of processing of English and Chinese words in the bilinguals’ brain, Sham (2002) found a new Dual Coding (Paivio, 1986) model for designing CSL teaching materials that best fits young learners’ limited capacity of the brain by reducing their cognitive load (Sweller et al., 1998). Although little research linking neuroscience and learning, Guy and Byrn (2013) emphasis on the understanding of neuroscience of working memory has positive effects on motivating students learning. Direct implication of neuroscience by language teachers has been found difficult, but interdisciplinary study of neuroscience, psychology and education is fruitful (Coch et al., 2007) and there has a great impact of neuroscience on teaching and learning including its implication for ESL college classroom (Sousa, 2010). This paper reviews current research of neuroscience, psychology integrating with ESL teaching and learning, and provides the adult students’ feedback of learning IELTS through the design related to neuropsychological findings in order to demonstrate how significant neuroscience is on TESL. In other words, understanding of neuroscience facilitates ESL teaching and benefits ESL teachers’ professional development in future (247 words).