Volume 1 Number 3 December 2016

Wet Oxidative Degradation of Cellulosic Wastes: Decomposition of Waste Protective Clothes Simulate

Authors: S. B. Eskander ; H. M. Saleh
Pages: 93-101
Wet oxidative degradation is a simple treatment process based on the degradative action of hydrogen peroxide solution on the organic part of the waste and then its oxidative action on the degraded moieties converting the waste to carbon oxides and remaining secondary waste solution that contains some inorganic residues. In this study wet oxidative degradation of waste protective clothes simulate as a component of organic solid waste was performed at ~100oC and 760 mm Hg under different experimental conditions. (e.g. different weights of solid waste simulate: 35% hydrogen peroxide solutions ratios, type of catalyst and different concentrations of the catalyst used). Elemental Analysis and Infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used as tools to follow up the degradative and oxidative actions of 35% hydrogen peroxide on the protective clothes waste as a component of the solid cellulosic waste. Keeping the amount of 35% hydrogen peroxide added constant and increasing the weight of the protective clothes accompanied by detectable decreases in weight reduction and conversion percentages. 

Evaluating the Changes in Surface Properties of Acid-Leached Iliri Clay

Authors: Mukasa-Tebandeke I. Z. W. N. ; Schumann A. ; Nyakairu G. W. ; Lugolobi F.
Pages: 76-92
Clay from Iliri was activated using hydrochloric and sulfuric acid of differing concentrations to acquire differing acidities. The chemical compositions of the raw clay and clay activated at different acid concentrations were analyzed to investigate the extent of cation dissolution. From the Na2O to CaO ratio, Iliri clay is swelling sodium bentonite mixed with feldspars, illite, kaolinite and plagioclase. The Langmuir isotherms of 1-aminobutane in isohexane agitated with clay slurries showed increase in clay acidity with increase in concentration of mineral acid used to leach the clay as well as the temperature at which the clay was thermally activated prior to experimentation involving adsorption of 1-aminobutane. The values of surface acidity, nm, for acid-leached Iliri clays ranged from 0.811x10-3 molg-1 to 6.7705x10-3 molg-1 and the kinetic equilibrium constant of adsorption, K, varied from 0.07828 to 0.7233 yet the surface area, A increased from 5.2702 x10-3 m2g-1 to 50.6700 x10-3  m2g-1 .  Basing on acidity, pH, elemental and mineral compositions, the Iliri clay was resolved to contain montmorillonite. 

Synthesis and Physiochemical Studies of Some Mixed Schiff Bases Complexes

Authors: N. S. Al-barki ; A. A. Maihub ; M. M. El-ajaily ; Taghreed  H. Al-Noor
Pages: 66-75
Five mixed Schiff bases complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III) ions with two different Schiff bases, first Schiff base namely{2-((2-hydroxy-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid} derived from the reaction of 2-hydroxyacetophenone and tyrosine as main ligand (HL1) and the second one namely {4-((2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazono)methyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline} is formed from the condensation of 4-dimethylaminobenzadehyde and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine as  a  second ligand (HL2) were prepared. The Synthesized Schiff bases and their mixed Schiff base complexes were subjected to several physiochemical tools; in terms, CHN elemental analyses, molar conductivity, infrared, proton nuclear resonance, electronic, mass and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. The CHN elemental analysis results showed the formation of the Schiff bases and their complexes in 1:1:1[M:L1:L2] ratio. The molar conductivity values revealed that Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) mixed Schiff base complexes to be electrolytes due to the existence of sodium ion outside the complexes, but the iron(III) mixed Schiff base complex is neutral confirming the presence of non-electrolytic natured. The infrared spectral data of the mixed Schiff base complexes exhibited chelation behavior between the metal ions and the Schiff bases through the active groups presented in the Schiff bases such as nitrogen atom of the azomethine and oxygen atom of the hydroxyl  group. The signals which obtained from the 1HNMR spectra of the Schiff bases and their Zn(II) complex supported the chelation between the Zn(II) ion and the Schiff bases. Whereas, the UV spectral data of the Schiff bases displayed the π→π* (Phenyl ring) and n→π* (C=N and –OH) transitions and the UV-Vis spectral results of the mixed Schiff base complexes  suggested the geometrical structure which is an octahedral geometry around the metal ions. The mass spectral fragmentations of the Schiff bases were studied and confirming the formation of the Schiff bases, also the mass spectral fragmentations of the Iron(III) mixed Schiff base complex was done. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectral results confirmed the data which are obtained from UV-Vis study.