Large volume of educational data has led to more challenging in predicting student’s performance. In Malaysia currently, study about the performance of students in Malaysia institutions is very little being addressed. The previous studies are still insufficient to identify what factors contribute to student’s achievements and lack of investigations on exploring pattern of student’s behaviour that affecting their academic performance within Malaysia context. Therefore, predicting student’s academic performance by using decision trees is proposed to improve student’s achievements more effectively. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview on predicting student’s academic performance using by using data mining techniques. This paper also focuses on identifying the pattern of student’s behaviour and the most important attributes that impact to the student’s achievement. By using educational data mining techniques, the students, lecturers and academic institution are able to have a better understanding on the student’s achievement.
Banks will not be resilient and stable if the provision for bad and doubtful financing (PBD) and contingency reserve (CR) failed to play its role as bank operational buffers whenever there is an economic condition disorder. Every firm has to face the financial uncertainties and the sudden shock of economic activity disorder, which will directly affect their operations. The management of PBD and CR is necessary to make the bank well protected. To verify the resiliency and stability of the Islamic bank, hence, this paper empirically examines the bank management of PBD and CR. An unbalanced panel data analysis was conducted on 67 Islamic banks from various countries for the period of 2000-2014. The empirical evidence shows, although the bank PBD does fulfil the resiliency and stability behaviour conditions, the insignificant relationship of the M2 growth and CPI growth to the PBD growth need some consideration from the banks and policy makers. The finding also provides an indication that only the current year profit growth behaviour is positively correlated to the CR growth. The findings recommend the Islamic bank PBD and CR management need to be sound to make it more resilient and stable.
For a stiffer penalty, punishment for the environmental violation was generally increased from Malaysian Ringgit 10,000 to Malaysian Ringgit 100,000 and from two years to five years imprisonment twenty years ago. Although the penalties are improved, the cases of environmental pollution and violation are yet increasing. This article examines the trend of punishment for environmental violations that imposed on the corporate entities or corporations. Focusing on the case of water pollution, the observations are made to the penalty’s provisions of the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and the penalties imposed through the court judgment against the corporations. For this purpose, cases and charges of water pollution are obtained from the records of Department of Environment Malaysia. Moreover, views of the judges of the Green Court on both laws and judgments relating to penalties are acquired. The study found that: (a) there is a wide gap between the punishment imposed by law and the penalties positioned by court; (b) corporate entities are willing to pay fines; (c) courts are not ready to impose imprisonment for default of payment to the corporations or individuals within the corporations. Though addressing water pollution, the findings should be far-reaching surpassing other types of environmental pollution.
Companies that are able to take advantage of good reputation are likely to increase their economic performance by retaining large customer base. While studies have established a direct relationship between organisational culture and corporate reputation, scholars have argued that there is paucity of studies that examined external perception of organisational culture (POC) on customer based corporate reputation (CBCR). Similarly, studies have not examined the causal link through which POC influence CBCR. Hence, this present study was conducted to provide additional insight by examining the mediating role of transparent communication (TC) on the relationships between POC and CBCR. The data for this study was collected from 321customers of three major insurance companies (Custodians and Allied Insurance, Mutual Benefits, NEM Insurance PLC) in Nigeria. The study utilized PLS-SEM path modelling with the aid of SmartPLS 2.0 software to test the research hypotheses. The findings revealed that TC plays a competitive mediating role by changing the negative significant relationship between POC and CBCR to significant positive relationship. As such, a competitive mediation was established between POC and CBCR through TC. The study recommended the need for insurance companies to engage in aggressive communication strategy by focusing on transparent communication to foster better insurance awareness with a view to improving their reputation in the eyes of the Nigerian public.
Studies on dependence between stock markets are important because of their implications on the process of decision-making in investment. Many previous studies measure the dependence between markets using static copula. However, in recent years, time-varying copula has been used as an alternative for measuring dependence due to its capability of capturing time-varying dependence between markets. This study uses both static and time-varying copulas to measure the dependence structure between Malaysia and major stock markets (US, UK and Japan) based on the sample data from year 2007 Q1 until year 2017 Q3. The results reveal that the best model for all pairs of indices is the time-varying SJC copula, which also reveals that the Malaysia-US pair has the weakest dependence structure compared to other pairs. In terms of lower and upper tails, the Malaysia-UK and the Malaysia-Japan pairs have the strongest dependence structure respectively. Evidence from this research suggests that diversifications involving Malaysia and US stock markets are not effective.
This research evaluates the presence of long memory or long-term dependence on the Malaysian exchange rate. Daily, weekly and monthly data are evaluated against the US dollar (USD) covering from January 2005 to March 2018. Evaluation of long memory is based on the Geweke and Porter-Hudak estimation and the Maximum Likelihood Estimation. The result suggests the presence of long memory on all the daily, weekly and monthly data. Results show that shock on the Malaysian exchange rate persist longer than expected. The forecast capability also concludes that addition of the long memory presence from ARIMA model to ARFIMA model could improve the model forecast.
In today’s competitive business world, marketing is critically important to universities in positioning a product to attract the interest of its clients, which are the prospective students. As for public universities such as University Teknologi Mara (UiTM), the key to survive the increasing competition and financial difficulties is through their alumni loyalty. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that affects the Alumni Loyalty towards UiTM. This study tests a model derived from a relationship marketing perspective to investigate the effects of components of University Brand Image which are Academic System, Reputation, Employability, Shared Values and Social Network on the Alumni Loyalty towards UiTM. Based on the literature review, a theoretical model is proposed and tested through Partial Least Square - Structural Equations Modelling (PLS-SEM) using a sample of 815 UiTM alumni. The results reveal that the significant factors that affect Alumni Loyalty are Reputation, Employability and Shared Values. In addition, the results highlight that Academic System do not affect Alumni Loyalty directly but rather indirectly through the mediation of Satisfaction. Overall, Academic System, Reputation, Employability and Shared Values are important in explaining the variance of Alumni Loyalty. University should be careful about the quality of the course offered and methods of delivery by the academicians since the implication of an Academic System is significant toward the loyalty of alumni.
Entrepreneurship has been the central focus for both policy makers and scholars alike for its role in economic and social transformation of a nation. University students are widely regarded as future builders of nation and thus, their role and intention towards entrepreneurship is of much concern. This study applies the theory of planned behaviour to analyse the factors affecting university students’ entrepreneurial intention with the inclusion of university environment. This study aims to incorporate the various variables as a comprehensive model simultaneously analysing the relationships between using SEM-PLS technique. A quantitative research design was employed with the use of 317 sample of university students from Malaysia and China universities. The study explores the effect of individual factors: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control; together with university environment on their effect on university students’ entrepreneurial intention. The finding suggests that university environment is a significant influence of university students’ intention to entrepreneurship as a career choice. A conducive environment and support within the university elevates student’s belief in their capability to be an entrepreneur and the intention to embark on an entrepreneurial journey.
The Human Genome Project is the resplendence of the bioinformatics field, especially in health and medicine. It involves research regarding complete nucleotide sequences of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in human’s chromosome. The primary structure of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) consist of nucleotide construction which became polynucleotide when combined. In reality, genetic research field requires huge biological data, and most of the data are vague with various characteristics. Most of them are incomplete and complex from evolutional, functional, adaptability and other traits. The theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic offers modelling methods in uncertainties and various computational techniques for decision making. This research aims to find similarity, difference, equality and identity between polynucleotide sequences using the concept of fuzzy metric space and fuzzy set theory. The Sadegh-Zadeh fuzzy polynucleotide space (RSZ) is being compared with the Torres and Nieto fuzzy polynucleotide space (RTN) in search of the best approach to analyse polynucleotide sequences. Research methods involve data collection of complete genome sequences for homologous species pairs, construction of the RSZ and RTN models, and data analysis. Outputs from RSZ and RTN are then compared with outputs from the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) for validation purposes from the bioinformatics field. Results show that outputs from both approaches are against each other, and RTN executes outputs that are nearest to the outputs from BLAST. Thus, RTN is the best fuzzy approach to compare complete genome sequences for species pairs.
Prioritizing and making decisions on what student activities to be selected and conducted to fulfill the aspiration of a university requires some understanding on the mission of the university as translated in its strategic plan and the basic theory on student development. For government funded universities in Malaysia, the recent budget cut imposed by the Malaysian government has made the task more difficult. In this paper, we illustrated how 0-1 integer programming (0-1 IP) model was implemented to select which activities among the forty activities proposed by the student body of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) to be implemented for the 2017/2018 academic year. Two different models were constructed. The 0-1 IP model was developed to determine which activities to be selected based on RM50,000 total budget allocated by the UUM management towards fulfilling the SETARA-rating requirements as well as the Chickering’s student development theory. The selection of activities was also based on maximizing the preference of the members of the student body whereby the preference value for each activity was determined using Compromised-Analytic Hierarchy Process. The optimal result obtained using LINGO version 11 revealed that the budget allocated was more than enough to fulfill all the needed requirements. The technique used in this study will be useful and suitable to be implemented by organizations with key performance indicator-oriented programs and having limited budget allocation issues.
Many studies reveal that upon graduation, most university undergraduates are still unclear about their future. Questions like whether they would be able to find a suitable job, which job sector should they be in, and what factors to consider in determining their job selection, often arise. In this paper we present a career decision support system to help these students plan for their career. The system will propose the most suitable job sector that a student should be in, based on the weights given for each determining factor selected and the evaluation of job sectors with respect to each factor done by the student himself. The evaluations are then combined and calculated using a simple scoring model approach. The system which was developed using Visual Basic 6 can be used by any student with minimal supervision, or by the academic career counselors as one of the tools to help students.
This paper investigated the efficiency of six heuristic algorithms from prior studies in the attempt to solve issues related to waste collection, namely: (i) Nearest Greedy (NG), (ii) Further from Depot (FFD), (iii) Different Initial Customer (DIC), (iv) Savings Approach, (v) Sweep Algorithm, and (vi) Different Initial Customer based on Sweep Algorithm. In fact, these heuristics have been employed to solve several routing problems in past studies, but the performance of each heuristic has never been compared. Hence, this paper looked into the efficiency of these heuristics by testing them on a real case study of waste collection problem in a district located at the north of Peninsular Malaysia. Several solutions obtained from these heuristics were compared with solutions implemented by the waste collection company, especially in terms of the total distance travelled. As a result, the computational results exhibited that DIC generated the best solutions, when compared to other heuristics, with a 12% reduction of the total travel distance.
The objective of this paper is to understand the investigation of economic and financial crimes by the Nigeria’s Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC). Thus, the study through the use of case study from the qualitative research paradigm attempts to understand from the perspectives of experts from EFCC, the investigation of categories of economic and financial crimes. The findings revealed the concentration on the investigation of Public Sector Corruption (PSC) as compared to other forms of economic and financial crimes. Therefore, the paper recommends the strengthening of the investigation capacity of the EFCC to cover all forms of economic and financial crimes. Notwithstanding the need to stem the tide of PSC in Nigeria, other forms of economic and financial crimes equally have the tendency to retard the country backward in all its developmental processes.
Academics employed in either public or private university in Malaysia may be subject to different contract of service and scheme of employment. Due to this variance, academics receive different employment benefits. Such variation can also create differences and imbalance between universities in the context of workloads assigned to academics in both types of universities. Thus, objective of this article is to analyze employment benefits (pecuniary and non-pecuniary) of academics in Malaysian universities and their satisfaction with the employment benefits that they receive. This article employs a mixed method approach i.e. qualitative and quantitative. For quantitative approach, a survey was conducted among academic staffs in Malaysian public and private universities. Qualitative approach by way of interviews were conducted among management of selected universities. The results show that all academic staff in public and private universities in Malaysia received pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. For public universities these benefits are mostly standardized. However, pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits for academics in private universities are different from public universities and between themselves. The job specification which involves teaching, supervision, research, consultation and administrative works as found in the KPIs of all academics are not similar. It is recommended that to strike a balance between benefits (pecuniary and non-pecuniary) and workloads received by academics, the workloads of academics should be designed to have a particular focus on specification of work such as research and supervision, teaching and administration tracks. Therefore, this article suggests that the relevant authorities consider a new remuneration scheme and benefits based on tracks and yearly staff performance achievement for academics in Malaysia.
Realizing the economic importance of SMEs in the context of service-related industry, Malaysian government’s commitment for service SMEs were reinforced especially in the internationalization of service SME in Malaysia; post GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) & AFAS (Asean Framework Agreement on Services Agreement). One of the liberalization preparation is to explore market access opportunities abroad through partnerships. Generally, this research is to establish the relationship of network capital determinants namely access to resources and knowledge, access to market opportunites and collaboration that can accelerate the degree of internationalization of service SMEs in Malaysia. It also seeks to establish that the network capital moderated by the Internet-enabled environment will accelerate the internationalization of service SMEs. A cross-sectional design was deployed together with survey method of data collection and systematic random sampling technique were utilized. The population of this study is 1,500 export-ready SMEs in the Malaysia`s service sector and was obtained from the SME business directory. The study postulated and tested 7 hypotheses. Based on the outcome, all the direct hypotheses, namely; H1, H2, H3 and H4 were supported. Based on the results, all the independent variables have t-value ≥ 1.645, significant at 0.05. Specifically, access to resources and knowledge (β = 0.477, p˂ 0.01), access to market opportunities (β = 0.241, p˂ 0.01), business collaboration (β = 0.148, p˂ 0.01) and internet-enabled environment (β = 0.159, p˂ 0.01) have positive influence on the degree of internationalization. Thus, H1, H2, H3 and H4 are supported. Access to resources and knowledge has the largest effect in producing the R2 for the degree of internationalization. While, the effect of other 2 predicting variables namely; access to market opportunities and business collaboration, as well as the moderating variable, internet-enabled environment is small in producing the R2 for the degree of internationalization.
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