The present paper described an attempt to analyze the use of transformed phraseological units (PUs) in media texts in English and Russian. The considered problems in this work were as follows: detection and analysis of semantics and its structure of transformed phraseological units; allocation of features of using such PUs in the context; and investigating functions of such PUs in media texts. Semantic, grammatical, component and contextual aspects of using such phraseological units were analyzed in the present research. It aimed to reveal phraseological paradigm while reading and translating transformed PUs in media texts within two remote cognates. The paper presented the analysis and comparison of such linguistic systems as semantic macro and micro structures of PUs in English and Russian. The meaning of a PU presents a combination of two major macro components: signification of denotation and connotation. The semantic analysis of PUs gives us a fundamental understanding of existence of such micro components of meaning as values, emotion, expressivity, functioning in the context within the whole structure of meaning. These points are young and new. This is essential for our purposes. Revealing and understanding the use of transformed PUs is a case of great practical interest. The analysis indicated that there were common and different features within two remote cognates when we read and translated phraseological transformations in the mass media texts in native and foreign languages. The important point was the investigation and realization of peculiarities of such phraseological levels with vital roles in the process of translation and communication. These observations highlight the need for further investigation of these points. The outcomes of transformed PUs in the context of mass media are numerous and active in the use both in English and Russian but in different extent.
This article was devoted to the study of the specifics of national language thinking by representatives of different linguistic cultures in the nomination of complex nouns. The research was based on cognitive analysis, supported by the methods of semantic identification; descriptive-analytical and comparative. The quantitative method of material processing was used as required. A systematic approach to the study of compounds with the same denotative meaning in different languages needed the postulation of a meta-language, which could be a criterion for assessing a language in the light of its philological specificity. The peculiarities of cognitive comprehension of identical concepts and phenomena of the surrounding reality were revealed in the course of studying the relations of equivalence, continuity, inclusion, intersection, mixing, refinement, and contraindication, established between the CSOM components. The material of the work and the results of the study could also serve as a basis for further research in this area, in the practice of teaching English, German and Tatar languages among the English-language audience, and used in courses especially those in lexicology, comparative philology, cognitive semantics, as well as lexicographical practice.
The present paper aimed to investigate the ratio and interaction of international and internal law in the Republic of Iraq. Theoretical questions of concept "international contracts" are raised from the point of view of their structure location of legal system of the Republic of Iraq. The mechanism of a ratio of international treaties and the national legislation is characterized in the law-enforcement aspect of the concept "right source". The international treaty of the Iraqi legislation has the status of the special ordinary law of national legal system corresponding to other acts of the internal law by rules of the competition and a collision of norms. The analysis of concrete provisions of the domestic legislation was performed according to the international law of the Republic of Iraq. According to author’s point of view, the rapprochement of various legal systems and national legislations with rules of international law is now the major development.
Deviations of children behavior is now significantly important and is associated with the system-wide society crisis. The distortion of cultural and spiritual foundations, the decline of social regulation, and unfavorable social trends affect adolescents. Due to an uncontrolled increase in various social pathology forms (drug addiction, prostitution, and alcoholism), and low number of standards of moral relations, there is a need to investigate the rehabilitation features of the individual deviant behavior which can be solved through effective works by teachers, psychologists and sociologists. Modern information about the problem of individual deviant behavior is presented in various fields of science: medicine, psychology, pedagogy, sociology, and law. According to the medicine, the deviant behavior includes actions, gestures committed in forms of neuropsychiatric pathology. Clinical approach studies the psychopathological nature of deviance. Psychologists focus on the intrapersonal nature of this phenomenon (Akbarova, 2015). Sociology, in the subsection deviantology, studies this problem according to individual social deviations (Akkuzova et al., 2018). Modern "encyclopedia of criminology and deviant behavior" treats the deviance as a violation of human rights (Becker, 1966). Pedagogy characterizes the deviant behavior as a negative deviation in the human behavior contrary to accepted legal and moral norms in the society. All presented approaches naturally complement each other. The present scientific paper presented results of theoretical research and aimed study features of pedagogical rehabilitation in teenagers with deviant behavior by means of the hip-hop culture. Analysis of results revealed a significant educational potential of hip-hop culture in working with deviant teenagers. Hip-hop, as an influential youth culture, has a great impact on teenagers’ inner world helping them to overcome the inner disharmony and adopt universal values.
Writing is a complicated psycholinguistic process of generating messages. It is determined by the writers’ personality, their communicative and cognitive needs, target settings for upcoming types of written messages, and the audiences for which the written speech is created.The present paper provided an absolutely new and original approach to writing teaching in the EFL class. Concepts of writing and free writing were investigated in order to differentiate recognized writing techniques from offered technique: Teaching free writing in the English and Russians. It was preceded from the classical model of automatic writing by Myers (1885) and the free writing strategy by Elbow (1998). Our newly elaborated technique had some common features with both of the above mentioned teaching techniques, but it differed in what English language learners had to write without stopping through using both languages: their mother and target languages.The research aimed to develop teaching tips based on free writing in Eng-Rus techniques that are recommended to be implemented for teaching English to beginners. Findings can be considered by English teachers of elementary and secondary schools, and adult English learners at the elementary level.
This article shed light on language training of bilingual and trilingual children, relationship between bilingualism / trilingualism and cognitive development, and also general principles of language teaching in multilingual regions. In the neuroscience of the last decade, it has been shown that bilingualism and multilinguism positively affect brain development and slow down the onset of cognitive decline; but, according to available scientific data, there is no significant difference in neuropsychological status of bilingual and trilingual children. Most of modern societies are increasingly characterized as multilingual. Linguists underline that modern linguistics has moved towards trilingualism and even multilingualism from bilingualism. This situation raises new questions about strategies for language teaching of bilingual and trilingual children. The most effective methods of language training for multilinguals nowadays match with methods for bilinguals that are presented predominantly by communicative approach, transcultural learning, methods of active listening, and those for overcoming lexico-semantic interference. The extent and the content of input in bilingual and trilingual development also significantly influence the positive effect of bilingual and multilingual education.
Anthony Burgess (1917-1993) was an English author of intellectual novels and serious musical works. As a talented and an inventive person, he was very interested in art and its creative processes. Anthony Burgess’s artistic creativity concept can be traced in most of his works on fictional and non-fictional writers (e.g. William Shakespeare, John Keats and Christopher Marlowe in novels titled nothing Like the Sun: A Story of Shakespeare’s Love Life respectively). The present paper analyzed the image of artist on the basis of Enderby novels, and a tetralogy about a contemporary fictional English poet named Enderby. The analysis indicated that the artist was a craftsman, whose artistic activity was closely connected with his sexual attraction, in Anthony Burgess’s opinion. Furthermore, the author was characterized by the isolation as the main condition for the creative process and the total devotion to art.
The present paper substantiated the need to analyze the implementation of measures to increase the labor productivity in companies in accordance with strategic objectives of businesses. It defined possibilities of using instruments of financial mathematics for the creation of analytical information on changes in the net profit, net present value, discounted payback period, and the profitability index of costs. It considered measures to increase labor productivity within the framework of the lean manufacturing concept. Economic calculations were carried out to determine the effectiveness of introduction of the individual lean production elements in one of the largest Russian oil companies: The introduction of small-scale mechanization and the integration of round checks; and the utilization of the fund standardization and visualization. Practical aspects of determining the effectiveness of measures aimed to increase the labor productivity based on principles of the production. It analyzed the impact of measures to increase the labor productivity on key technical and economic indices of the company’s activity: Increase in the oil production and growth in sales proceeds due to the reduction in downtime, changes in the number of personnel, and reduction in oil losses. The main approaches to the formation of efficiency criteria were identified: The analysis of using labor resources and the evaluation of efficiency of obtaining general income and profits that allowed developing and making managerial decisions.
Language is a mirror which reflects the public social consciousness. It describes a nation system of values and helps to express a person’s viewpoint. It might be politically correct or incorrect. In this regard, the research questions are “What utterance is politically correct?” and “What is political correctness?” We adhered to the following definition of the term "political correctness": It is used to describe languages, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage for members of particular groups in the society. The present research defined the political correctness as a linguistic category and described language means of its expression. Our standpoint is as follows: it is significantly important to teach students to speak politically correct. The research aimed to implement innovative approaches to teach the political correctness in the English classroom. Teaching tips were offered with the aim to teach the political correctness that can be applied at upper-intermediate/advanced levels of students’ proficiency in EFL class. Research materials can be recommended for English learners. Findings of research can serve as general recommendations for faculty members and students at universities.
There is an extensive field of research on the psychology of creativity in Russia. The relevance of research problem lies in the following cases: The modern system of higher education in Russia does not suit ways of acquiring "ready-made" knowledge, and society needs of professionals who are able to think creatively, and independently put and solve the most unexpected problems. The creative individuality problem is interwoven with the formation of individual creative style of activity.The present paper aimed to analyze the musical-pedagogical activity and subsequent separation of the content of individual creative activity style of a music teacher at a secondary school. The paper results were as follows: to identify professional and personal qualities, criteria and content of the individual creative style of musical-pedagogical activity. It was sought to answer whether it was possible to form an individual creative style of music teacher’s activities at the university.The paper can be useful for researcher of the creativity problem, training music teachers in pedagogical institutes and universities, and all those interested in investigating problems of music psychology and pedagogy.
The problem of food security has traditionally been at the centre of attention of domestic and foreign economic science and practice. It was connected with the challenges of world development and the growth of global contradictions. One of the most important areas of study of food security is the modelling of this socio-economic process. When making management decisions, not only expert, but also mathematical methods are used. The most common form of mathematical methods is economic and mathematical modelling. It is generally accepted, that mathematical model is a representation of certain processes, which occur in a real object, and are described using mathematical theorems, formulas and symbols. The essence of economic and mathematical modelling consists in the description of socio-economic systems and processes, in the form of economic and mathematical models. Based on the linear programming methods, the economic-mathematical model of food security has been developed in this paper, taking into account the specifics of the region, gender of the subject, his type of activity, lifestyle and age characteristics. This model helps to determine the optimal nutrition structure, which is a determining factor of food security. Cost minimization is the objective function in this model. Developed model of the structure of nutrition of population in the region is considered on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan of the Russian Federation.
Business support infrastructure facilities were introduced into the practice of Russian state management due to the increasing need to change the development guideline, the increasing share of innovative and high-tech products in the gross product structure, and also in connection with the search for new growth points for highly differentiated regions of the Russian Federation. The formation of such territories with special economic regimes was designed to ensure the stability of the socio-economic situation of the regions, to ensure a positive dynamics of key indicators of their competitiveness, to attract additional domestic and foreign investment in the economy and, as a result, to give new impetus to development and access to new markets for technological products. The created territories with special economic regimes are designed not only to ensure the implementation of the stated targets, but also to become impulses for the development of regions by increasing their investment attractiveness. In order to ensure the stated goals for residents of special territories, a list of key performance indicators and threshold values are generated, the provision of which is the primary obligation for each project. However, the achievement of these indicators and their qualitative monitoring are still difficult issues for both residents and project initiators, as well as for public authorities.
The article deals with a cluster method usage in the English language teaching. The study focused on the influence of this method on the process of teaching English terminology on Business Informatics. Using empirical method the work with two groups of students from Kazan Federal University was organized in order to ensure the reliability of the study. The results of the experiment are given. The efficiency of the cluster method as a method of teaching English terminology on Business Informatics is shown. Materials of the article can be useful for enrichment foreign language teaching methodology and pedagogy.
The aim of this study is to propose a vision on how to achieve high level of food self-sufficiency in light of the available resources, expect ed future changes and future needs. This study defines the major driving forces that will improve the food security in Egypt based on data and economic indicators of wheat during the period (1995- 2015-16). A system dynamics model was built to present the process of imports, demand and consumption of wheat in Egypt, through monitoring the increase in population undernourishment, and filling the gap between the desired quantity and the supply of wheat. Finally, sets of policies were formulated and suggested to improve food security in 2030, which are presented in the improvement of land management and productivity, increase of individual income, decrease of population growth, and building a strategic inventory of wheat for solving the problems of local supply.
This article analyzes anthropocentric phraseological units with color components describing human’s qualities and appearance in three structurally different languages: English, Russian and Tatar. The article is aimed at revealing common and specific features of the phraseological units under consideration. It is well known that people manifest themselves by means of colors to the sense of sight. Colors have been exercising the major emotional expressive impact on the human’s mind from ancient times on, possess a great degree of compatibility and are used in a huge amount of phraseological units, which constitute the absolute majority of phraseology with the color component in English as well as in Russian and Tatar. As a result, such positive (innocence, sincerity, high morality, etc.) and negative (stupidity, cowardice, meanness, lightheadedness, etc.) human qualities are disclosed. Phraseological units with color components are also widely used while describing human’s appearance (paleness, gloominess, bleakness, beauty, human races, etc.). The purpose of the article is to determine the lexical-semantic features of the concept actions, behavior as well as identify the universal and national characteristics in representation of the analyzed concept through phraseological means of the Tatar and English languages. Color components within the phraseological units are mainly used in figurative sense. As a rule, certain characteristics and features of people are transferred through colors. We have revealed universal and national features in the analyzed phraseological units of the English, Russian and Tatar languages. About 60 color components have been involved in the English, Russian and Tatar phraseological units. The materials of this article can be useful for students, master program undergraduates, post-graduate students while learning Tatar and English. Information on language pictures of the world of various linguocultural communities can be applied in the methods and practice of teaching above-mentioned languages.
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