Despite some success in the study of pre-eclampsia, it is still one of the main causes in the structure of maternal mortality. The tissues of the reproductive organs: ovaries, uterus, placenta, testis and pituitary have the receptors for vitamin D, and the association of vitamin D role with reproductive health is evident. The aim of the study was to study the effect of vitamin D deficiency on renin concentration among pregnant women from the groups of pre-eclampsia development risk. The pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and the patients with a high risk of pre-eclampsia development who are planning pregnancy were studied for vitamin D, endothelin and renin concentrations, since it is known from literature data that enzymes like renin are found in the uterus, placenta and in the walls of some large arteries. The material of the study was blood. The method of enzyme immunoassay and the sets of biomedicagruppe (Germany) were used to determine the availability of vitamin D, the enzyme immunoassay and Immuno Chem (USA) sets were used to determine the renin concentration. The patients with developed preeclampsia showed highly reliable correlations between low vitamin D values and high blood pressure (r = 0.68, p < 0.01), high endothelin level in blood (r = 0.56, p < 0.01), high renin concentration (r = 0.72, p < 0.01), an early onset of PE (r = 0.46 p < 0.05). The risk group of pre-eclampsia development among the women planning a pregnancy was composed of 30 women with hypertension, 31 - with kidney disease, 24 - with obesity (BMI > 34), 13 - with body weight deficit. The supply of vitamin D and the level of ionized Ca among these women were significantly lower (0.07 ± 0.01 mmol/l) than among the women not included in risk group (1.2 ± 0.02 mmol/l); the renin concentration exceeded the mean values among the women of the control group. The patients with hypertension and obesity had the renin concentration at the upper limit of physiological parameters (30.4 ± 1.8 and 28.4 ± 1.6 pg/ml, respectively), and the level of vitamin D was lower than in other nosologies among the patients of high risk group (14.8 ± 1.5 and 13.9 ± 1.5 ng/ml, respectively). At renal diseases and body mass deficiency, the renin concentration was 16.6 ± 0.7 and 12.4 ± 0.8 pg/ml, respectively, while the level of vitamin D was 17.4 ± 1.5 and 16.9 ± 1.2 ng/ml.
The article makes generalization about domestic and foreign constitutional experience of parliamentary responsibility of the government in the comparative analysis of the ongoing legal policy in certain foreign countries. The conducted analysis of practice of law makes it possible to identify both advantages and disadvantages of the Russian model of parliamentary responsibility of the government, which makes it possible to formulate proposals concerning the raise of the level of government responsibility in Russia. Based on the general analysis, the author substantiates practical proposals for improving Russian legislation and summarizes theoretical approaches to the formation and development of the policy of law in foreign countries. In the process of analyzing the sources describing the implementation of the mechanism of executive responsibility in European countries, the author’s research interest was aimed at studying the heterogeneity and diversity of laws in the legislation of many countries regulating the mechanism of parliamentary responsibility of the government, as well as the proximity of certain norms of legislative regulation of the mechanisms of responsibility of foreign states and the Russian Federation. The article focuses on general theoretical issues of law policy, including the analysis of the distribution of the burden of constitutional responsibility between the members of government in foreign countries, the correlation of constitutional and political responsibility, pays special attention to the problems of applying sanctions against the persons belonging to the Government of the Russian Federation and foreign countries, analyzes the foreign experience of ministers’ responsibility and draws attention to the development of law policy in the sphere of formation of parliamentary responsibility of the government in Russia.
The Russian-born American writer Ayn Rand (1905-1982) became famous as the founder of the objectivism philosophy. The quintessence of her philosophy is the ethical ideas of rational egoism. Rand justifies the kind of egoism which is not aimed at defying other people’s rights and therefore does not result in conflict of interests. The article tackles the conception of rational egoism underlying Ayn Rand’s novel Atlas Shrugged in terms of myths of mass consciousness. In the context of popular literature, the notion “myth” is defined as “representations of truth”, “supposed truth”. The article is based on the proposition that popular literature depicts reality in accordance with myths circulating in mass consciousness and creates myths itself. The first thing that qualifies Rand’s idea of rational egoism as a myth is its being presented as something undoubtedly “good” – thus the popular mythological opposition of “good versus evil” is shaped in Rand’s novel. Another thing that contributes to the perception of the idea of rational egoism as a myth in the novel is its extremely positive and extremely negative characters, whose interaction creates the two-dimensional flat world of the novel. The analysis of these, as well as some other characteristics, allows to identify Ayn Rand’s novels as a specimen of mass literature.
The article covers the functional potential of the legal doctrine of the presumption of innocence in the context of its manifestation in the legal system of the Russian state. It is noted that the legal doctrine as the teaching of authoritative experts, apologists, highly qualified specialists in the field of law, contains in its structure the scientific-theoretical and practical-applied constructions and the knowledge concerning the remaining elements of the legal system of the Russian state. It is specially emphasized that the legal doctrine of the presumption of innocence represents a crown of guarantees for the rights and freedoms of man and citizen as one of the achievements of legal theoretical science and practice based on the achievements of well-known scientific theories and practical developments in which it exerts a special influence on the lawmaker and the executor of law, forms representations about the proper image of law, its guarantees, prospects for its development. It is separately noted that the legal doctrine of the presumption of innocence effectively and actively influences the formation of basic and essential features, both separate elements and their groups, has a significant influence on the internal structuring, the concerted actions and functioning of the entire legal system of modern Russia through the implementation in its separate elements (normative legal acts, decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, decisions and guidance clarifications of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, reviews of law enforcement practice).
This article deals with the problems of education process organizing within the University in the field of international relations study. The peculiarity of the line is that the perfect knowledge of the languages studied should be supported by a profound knowledge in the sphere of specialization. It means that the future graduates should understand political, economic and geopolitical affairs around the world and ought to be good enough to analyze the specific literature, to point out the principal ideas of the TV and Radio programmes, to use the obtained language skills solving the daily tasks at a workplace. Thus, here we see the necessity of all the aspects of language mastering as listening, reading, use of language skills and etcetera, along with training the students how to operate the knowledge they received within the education process. In order to achieve the goals supposed, it is preferable to use a set of vocabulary assessment tests and self-study cases, putting the learners in true to life situations, where they will have to cope with different difficulties natural for the international relations line.
The article presents an analysis of borrowings from Turkic languages in the semantic and functional aspects. The research material is academic dictionaries of the Russian literary language published since the 18th till the 20th c. The choice of the sources is due to the fact that the lexical variety of the language was at a certain stage of its development, reflected in lexicographic sources, and most fully of all – in thesauri, as this type of dictionaries is aimed at comprising, as completely as possible, the commonly used vocabulary of the literary language. Comparing of the lexicographic sources of various periods, the comparative analysis of the Turkic language units reflected in them allows tracing the life of the borrowed word in the language and the stages of its joining the system of the recipient language, and enables to reveal the features of functioning of the Turkic stratum within the Russian lexis.
The borrowings are also analyzed from the standpoint of their lexicographic registration. The Turkic language units are viewed in accordance with the parameters, characteristics and zones which are reflected in thesauri. It was found that during their functioning within the Russian language, the Turkic language units enter onto new systemic relations. By the end of the 20th century, the stratum of the borrowings under study is complemented with new meanings. Some Turkic language units, which had not been previously registered in the thesauri of the Russian literary language, gradually join the stratum of commonly used vocabulary and become lexicographically registered. Some Turkisms narrow their meanings. However, most Turkish elements remain semantically unchanged during the studied period.
The article aims at revealing the peculiarities of using of expressive language means in the scientific and formal functional styles of the English language. Further subdivision of formal style into its legislative, diplomatic and office varieties of language is used for the convenience. The author describes lexical, morphological and syntactical features of the analyzed styles and gives a brief review of expressive lexis. As a result of research the author concludes that both styles are similar in terms of standardized and objective presentation of information but nevertheless, are not devoid of expressiveness at all. The frequency and the way expression is realized are determined by the requirements of these language varieties. The study found out that the most prevalent forms of implementing expressiveness in the formal and scientific styles of the English language are modal words, emphatic constructions, intensifying adjectives and adverbs, rhetorical questions, direct addresses, interjections, parenthetical insertions, repetitions, quantitative expression, author’s emphasizing the importance of information reported, focus on the credibility of material.
In modern society, within the context of an active emergence and development of all kinds of legal relations both within the state and at the international level, the problem of citizen right, duty and responsibility equality principle implementation in respect of society, state, law and court becomes more important. One of such problems of our society is discrimination. Discrimination implies the infringement or restriction of human rights and freedoms on a certain basis. The most common are racial, gender, national and political sign. It generates complex legal, practical and moral issues relating to the manifestation of social inequality. The rights of all citizens in Russian Federation are guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia, the protection of rights is regulated by the norms of civil, civil procedural, criminal, criminal procedural, administrative, administrative procedural and labor legislation. Russian Federation is a legal and social state in which all forms and manifestations of discrimination are prohibited. In this regard, the rights and the freedoms of a man and a citizen must be fixed and implemented regardless of race, gender, nationality, or religion. One way or another, there are differences, restrictions and preferences on some basis in the conditions of civil society development, the renewal of free, market, competitive Russian economy, the reforming of public and international relation system. The systems of national legislation, under which effective measures of protection against discrimination and international treaties on discrimination take place, consider the issue of discrimination proving as one of the most important.
Attracting investment into the economy of the region remains one of the most pressing tasks in economic policy. Activities that are aimed at improving the investment attractiveness of the region create the conditions for capital inflows and economic growth in the region, but it is important to develop an effective investment policy to realize the improvement of investment attractiveness. The development of an effective investment policy is impossible without identifying the most attractive for invested types of economic activity (hereinafter, referred to as TEA). There is no doubt that when choosing a foreign economic activity for investment, the greatest preference is given to competitive sectors of the economy with minimal riskiness. The paper studies the types of economic activity at the sectoral and regional levels in order to form the sectoral priorities of economic development as strategic guidelines for sustainable economic growth and investment attractiveness of the territories. The article exposes the approach proposed by the authors to the definition of foreign economic activity being attractive for investment of TEA in the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan (hereinafter – RT) in terms of growth in the shipping volume (hereinafter – SV), in terms of localization on fixed capital investments. To identify the above TEA, mathematical, statistical and graphical tools are used. A structural and dynamic comparative analysis of the shipping volume of products of 14 types of economic activities of the Republic of Tatarstan has been carried out, localization coefficients have been calculated, and the amount of investment received by each foreign economic activity has been analyzed.
The present article deals with studies and analyzes the lexical innovations of French origin in the Russian literary language on materials of fiction, opinion journalism, as well as etymological, defining, and foreign dictionaries under well-defined criteria of foreign word extraction. Various investigations dedicated to the study of language contacts offer variety of criteria describing the functioning of foreign vocabulary in the Russian lexical system as the result of interaction of various manifestation of language contacts. The authors discuss peculiarities of semantic adaptation of the Gallicisms in the context of convergent-divergent features of the French prototype’s semantics and correlative borrowing in the Russian language. On a material of works of Russian authors of 19 - early 20 century, dictionaries of foreign words of the Russian language, explanatory and etymological dictionaries of the French language and French written monuments of 17 - 18 centuries the complex component and semantic analysis of lexical structures of French words and Gallicisms has been realized to identify the most productive models of the reception and adaptation of the values of the foreign word in lexical system of the receiving language, as well as the description of the phenomena that occur in the process of language contact and directly or indirectly affect the choice of a particular model.
The urgent need to master a foreign language is caused by reality of modern world order. The modern technique of training a foreign language faces a set of the tasks and problems, which have arisen because of increasing interest in learning of a foreign language. The purpose of foreign language training at the present stage is not the system of language, but foreign-language speech activity, not only itself, but as means of cross-cultural interaction. The concept of modernization of Russian education in higher school provides changes in training structure, contents and the educational process training, considering students’ interests, tendencies and abilities, creation of conditions for their training according to their professional interests.
This article is devoted to a comparative analysis of the concepts путешествие/travel in Russian and English linguistic cultures. The concepts of study are the relevant direction of modern linguistics which this foreshortening allows considering a word in the context of culture, knowledge and communication. The purpose of the article is to reveal the features of the concepts «путешествие/travel» in Russian and English languages. Research methods are the contextual analysis methodology, comparative analysis methodology, conceptual analysis methodology. The «путешествие/travel» concept is a complex mental education that includes the following components: conceptual - a trip or walking, usually far beyond the permanent residence; scientific; educational; business; religious; sports and other purposes; valuable - understanding the travel needs, a positive assessment of what was seen and experienced in the journey, a negative assessment of difficulties and dangers along the way. The main article materials are newspapers and art discourses; data of continuous sampling from English and Russian explanatory dictionaries, proverbs and sayings; aphorisms; dictionary articles; thesis; abstracts; scientific literature.
The article demonstrates that intercultural communication is the base of the continuous multicultural education of students. The urgency of this issue is caused by the developing process of interaction and relationships between different countries, peoples and cultures. The leading approach to the study of the problem is the principle of the historical and cultural knowledge unity in pedagogy, cultural and civilizational approaches that allow us to consider the problem from a new angle, to assess the present state of affairs in this field, draw a conclusion and to make proposals. The article reveals the essence of such notions as intercultural communication, multicultural education, multicultural competence and intercultural competence disclosed their role in the formation of personality able to integrate into a modern, multicultural world. The work also covers the process of multicultural education actualization on the basis of the Kazan Federal University. Article results may be useful to enhance the humanistic trends in the practice of high school, contributing to the organization of continuous multi-cultural education on fundamental grounds - tolerance, respect and humanity that make the modern student an equal partner of the interaction with other cultures.
The gender field in linguistics the subject of which is the language-gender correlation as a social factor studies the concepts such as gender, femininity, masculinity. Gender is expressed in semantics and in grammar of the language, forming a linguistic world image, which, in turn, depends on the conceptual image. The gender view of the world is not biologically determined in different cultures and language communities, the concepts of femininity and masculinity are determined by cultural and historical factors, in particular, by language stereotypes. Gender metaphor also influences the formation of conceptual and linguistic view of the world. The gender metaphor is understood as the transfer not only of physical features but also of the totality of spiritual qualities and properties united by the nominations of femininity and masculinity to the objects that are not related to gender. In different language communities the referents of femininity and masculinity often do not coincide, which creates difficulties in intercultural communication and translation. Phraseological unit is a peculiar unit of language, complex and contradictory as language and culture. Phraseological units (PhU), like a sponge, absorb all the original in language. It is in them, where, alongside vocabulary and aphorism, the cumulative function of language is manifested first.
The present article deals with studies and analyzes the lexical innovations of French origin in the Russian literary language on materials of fiction, opinion journalism, as well as etymological, defining, and foreign dictionaries under well-defined criteria of foreign word extraction. Various investigations dedicated to the study of language contacts offer variety of criteria describing the functioning of foreign vocabulary in the Russian lexical system as the result of interaction of various manifestation of language contacts. On the basis of analysis of two languages phonological systems and different approaches to the assimilation typologies, considering also numerous general and specific characteristics of lexical neologisms assimilation in Russian (graphic and phonetic), authors offer a clear and complete image of current trends the reception and phonological adaptation of foreign language vocabulary of French origin in the Russian literary language, describing its basic laws and models as well as the types of possible deviations.
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